barcode vb.net 2010 Transactions, Snapshots, and Accumulating Snapshots 271 in Software

Make QR-Code in Software Transactions, Snapshots, and Accumulating Snapshots 271

11 Transactions, Snapshots, and Accumulating Snapshots 271
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no activity between these snapshots, as is the case for February 4 and February 5, or whether there were offsetting transactions that netted out to a change in the balance of zero, as was the case on February 6. As previously mentioned, cases exist where there is no transaction data associated with a periodic snapshot. Common examples include things like temperature levels, water levels, and other measurements that sample conditions. In other cases, transactions may contribute to the balance or level, but may be considered too numerous to maintain in any repository. In these cases, a snapshot model may be the only representation of a process and will be sourced directly from an operational system. The operational system itself may sample the status itself, rather than record individual transactions.
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The periodic snapshot need not be limited to storing facts that measure status. While this kind of fact is the raison d etre of the periodic snapshot, additional facts may also prove useful. Facts that summarize the snapshot period can prevent the need to refer to the transaction star when working with the snapshot. In some cases, it is possible that a nonadditive fact, which cannot be reduced to fully additive components, may also be called for. The monthly snapshot in Figure 11-4 illustrates these enhancements. When reporting on end-of-period status, we often want to know what the status was at the beginning of the period. By storing period-begin and period-end balances, we avoid the need to perform correlated subqueries or reporting tricks to provide this data in a single row. The fact table in Figure 11-4 provides both period-begin and period-end balances. Both facts are semi-additive. They are also redundant; each period-begin balance will be the same as the period-end balance recorded for the account in the snapshot of the prior period. It can also be useful to provide summary-level information on the activities that occurred during the period. These may include counts of different kinds of transactions, as well as their total magnitudes. In Figure 11-4, additional facts have been added to indicate the number of credit and debit transactions during the snapshot period, as well as the total dollar amount
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MONTH ACCOUNT_MONTHLY_ SNAPSHOT_FACTS month_key account_key branch_key_account acct_holder_key_primary period_begin_balance period_end_balance number_transactions credit_amount debit_amount average_daily_balance period_balance_sum Semi-additive facts (Not additive across months) Additive facts Nonadditive fact Fully additive alternative to nonadditive fact is preferable, can be used to compute averages across other dimensions
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Figure 11-4
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Additional facts for a periodic snapshot
Part IV
PART IV
Fact Table Design
of each kind of transaction. Notice that these four facts are fully additive; they can be meaningfully aggregated across any and all dimensions, including the snapshot period. There may also be interest in recording one or more nonadditive facts with the snapshot. For example, the bank may be interested in the average daily balance of an account over the snapshot period. The average daily balance is nonadditive; it makes no sense to add together averages across accounts, time periods, or any other dimension. If the average daily balance was to be included in each snapshot record, it would only be useful when studying individual accounts. The average daily balance can be decomposed into fully additive components: number of days and a sum of account balances. This latter measurement can be stored in the fact table. Although it has no intrinsic meaning, the sum of the day-end balances of multiple accounts can be divided by the number of days in a period. An average daily balance can be computed for an aggregate of accounts or a range of periods. The star in Figure 11-4 includes facts for both approaches. TIP A snapshot design can be embellished with additional facts to simplify the query and reporting process. Period-begin and period-end balances are redundant but make many reports much easier to build. Fully additive facts may summarize the quantity and magnitude of transactions of various types during the period; these facts are fully additive. Average balance information may also be useful but is nonadditive. A sum of daily balances for the period makes little sense on its own but is useful in computing averages across various dimensions. Period-to-date metrics may also find a home in the snapshot table. None of these embellishments is meant to take the place of the transaction fact table. Even with the additional transaction counts and dollar amounts, the periodic snapshot still lacks the transaction-level detail of the original star in Figure 11-1. The transaction model remains of immense utility, though in many cases it may be unmanageably large.
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