how to create barcode in vb.net 2010 TWO The Sources of the Problem in Software

Printer Data Matrix ECC200 in Software TWO The Sources of the Problem

CHAPTER TWO The Sources of the Problem
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Rise in Executive Stock Options
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Annual Long-Term Incentive Grant* Value to Senior Executives ($500,000/yr or greater salary) as Percentage of Their Base Salary 700% 75th Percentile 600%
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*Present value of all long-term incentives granted, including Black-Scholes value of stock options. Values are annualized to reflect how frequently the long-term incentives are granted.
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Source: The Delves Group Compensation Library
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sion describes the current state of executive compensation and corporate governance: Excessive use of stock options particularly fixed price options was encouraged by the fact that fixed price options do not result in a charge to earnings, while they provide the added benefit of substantial tax deductions; The speculative nature of stock options led, in some cases, to their being undervalued by executives to whom they were granted, which in turn necessitated higher levels of grants; Board of directors became lax in performing their historical duty to monitor compensation;
PART ONE The Stock Option Problem
The balance in the relationship between the board, management and compensation consultants, has, in too many cases, been skewed to produce an overly close relationship between consultants and management; The use of stock options and other equity-based incentives resulted in an enormous incentive to manage companies for short-term stock price gains; The unprecedented bull market led to massive, unanticipated gains from options unrelated to management s operating performance. Not only were the conditions ripe for potential abuses of stock options, but also a lack of accounting for them encouraged their overuse. Without accounting for them, it became difficult for boards to measure their impact on the company. What is not measured, after all, is generally not well managed. Without an adequate system to account for and measure the cost of stock options, boards of directors did not effectively manage the magnitude of what was granted. Instead of questioning what the corporation and its shareholders were getting in return for such lucrative compensation packages, boards continued to approve ever increasing grants for top executives. Once again because stock options were free according to the old accounting, it seemed like the perfect incentive, based on the theory that stock ownership in any form would align executives interests with those of shareholders.
STOCK OPTIONS FOR START-UPS AND THE TECHNOLOGY REVOLUTION
Stock options had the ability to bestow ownership on executives who could earn a piece of the corporation through their toil. In concept this sounds noble and appeals to our American capitalistic natures. Just like the homesteaders who worked the soil and in time owned the land, the corporate pioneers could earn their ownership. Nowhere was this practice more prevalent than in the technology companies and dot-coms of the 1990s. In these startups everybody received stock options from CEO to entry-level employee. With options they shared the wealth, or
CHAPTER TWO The Sources of the Problem
more accurately, the promise of wealth. According to a study by the National Center for Employee Ownership (NCEO), from 1992 to 1997 biotechnology and computer companies granted 55 percent of their stock options to nonmanagement employees. Interestingly the study reflecting the strong economic conditions of the 1990s drew a close parallel between the rise in stock option grants, the tightening of the labor market, and high-technology job creation. The spread of stock options grants also had the effect of transferring a growing portion of the future value of the company from the hands of shareholders into the hands of employees and managers. As Figure 2-2 illustrates, the percentage of outstanding stock devoted to stock option plans increased dramatically, rising from 3 to 5 percent in 1990 to 12 to 15 percent among general industry companies in 2001. In high-technology companies the average is much higher 18 to 25 percent, with some companies as high as 30 to 40 percent. The proliferation of stock options through the employee ranks is not just confined to technology start-ups. Large-cap technology
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