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Gamma corrections are also often made. It is a fact that not all display devices display images the same way. What looks right on a television may look too dark on a computer monitor. Gamma is a property of the phosphors used in the display technology, but also of the overall video delivery system and even the color of the surround of the display device. Gamma correction applies a look-up table to the digitized pixel values in order to correct them for display on different target display devices. Gamma correction is particularly important in streaming media applications, since most video material is originated using television production equipment, yet most users stream to a computer monitor today. Another video signal processing technique commonly applied to video signals prior to streaming media encoding is blurring and unsharp masking. These techniques are sensitive to edges in the video image and work to reduce the suddenness of the transition. This makes pixels on either side of the edge more like each other. Compression algorithms tend to work best when neighboring pixels are similar. Other image detail reduction techniques can often yield good results prior to compression. Pixels may be quantized differently in a process called posterization. This reduces the range of colors in the image and so provides less challenge to the streaming media encoder, at the expense of introducing visible contours in the image. Colors in the image can also be corrected to conform to the nearest web-safe colors, which can be a consideration for some streaming media players launched from browsers. By choosing the nearest web-safe color from the palette, the ultimate appearance of the streamed images can at least be judged at the encoding stage. Compression techniques also work best when there is no extraneous motion to encode. For this reason, motion jitter introduced by a telecine process (film weave, for example) or by camera shake can cause the video compression algorithm to spend unnecessary payload bits and encoder computation cycles representing motion that is of no interest to the viewer. Image stabilization algorithms can be used to resynthesize video frames, in order to reduce this unwanted motion jitter. A number of manufacturers like discreet (www.discreet.com) and Quantel (www.quantel.com) make commercial systems that can take motion jitter out of a video sequence, either fully automatically, or else with some human intervention to nominate anchor points. They are typically very expensive devices. When film from archives must be encoded for streaming, a number of mechanical and digital film restoration techniques can help produce better encoding efficiency. Scratches on the film can be automatically recog-
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nized and removed. Color variations over successive frames due to age can be automatically corrected. Film grain can be filtered out. Missing frames can be resynthesized from available adjacent frames. The weave of the film as it passes through the film scanner can be compensated. There are specialist companies, like Rank Cinetel and Digital Vision, which provide high quality digital film restoration solutions to perform these enhancements. Once again, for streaming media applications, the cost is only justified if the streaming media asset will attract a large audience or generate significant revenues. Sometimes the restoration process serves to renew the copyright on expired works, allowing the copyright owner to extend their monopoly franchise over what they feel to be a valuable media property. This is because extensively remastered works can count as new works. The process of sweetening is not only to make things look better or encode more efficiently, but it can be a way to extend copyright protection. The final resort, when the material is important but damaged beyond the capabilities of image restoration software, and it positively must be encoded for streaming media regardless of cost, is to retouch or repaint video frames by hand, one-by-one. This is painstaking and labor-intensive work, but sometimes necessary. Packages like Adobe After Effects can be used as a tool for frame retouching and repainting. If original sources are still available, but the edited archived piece is badly degraded (as when film stock is used to create an edited program that was conformed to video tape, for example), it may be possible to autoconform the program from original sources and the original edit decisions. Hence, there is a large and ever-growing collection of audio and video enhancement techniques that can be applied to audiovisual material in order to produce better media streams, which give end-users superior viewing and listening quality. The ultimate in audio and video quality enhancement does not come cheaply, however, since the complex and often patented processing devices, as well as the skilled operators, command premium prices. Enhancement can also be a laborious and slow process. In most cases, then, streaming media encoding will need to work with signals that have been suboptimally cleaned, conditioned, and enhanced.
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