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Appendix E
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M-JPEG, in its basic form, addresses only the video not the audio component. Many of the early problems experienced by users concerning portability of M-JPEG streams stemmed from the methods used to include audio in the data stream. Because the location of the audio may vary from one unit to the next, some decoder problems were experienced [7]. In actual fact, there was virtually no interoperability between nonlinear editing systems from different manufacturers at a video and audio data level, because each manufacturer had to independently solve the problem of synchronizing audio to the video and they all did it in different ways. The best that could be done is that an edit decision list could be exported from one system and imported into another (theoretically) and the audio and video redigitized into the destination machine from the original source video tapes, whether or not M-JPEG data files representing the video were in existence on the first system.
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The MPEG Standard
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The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) was founded in 1988 with the objective of specifying an audio/visual decompression system, composed of three basic elements, which the sponsoring organization (the International Standards Organization, or ISO) calls parts. They are as follows:
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Part 1 Systems Describes the audio/video synchronization, multiplexing, and other system-related elements Part 2 Video Contains the coded representation of video data and the decoding process Part 3 Audio Contains the coded representation of audio data and the decoding process
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The basic MPEG system, finalized in 1992, was designated MPEG-1. Shortly thereafter, work began on MPEG-2. The first three stages (systems, video, and audio) of the MPEG-2 standard were agreed to in November 1992. Table E-1 lists the companies and organizations participating in the early MPEG work. Because of their combined efforts, the MPEG standards have achieved broad market acceptance. As might be expected, the techniques of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 are similar and their syntax is extensible.
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Video and Audio Compression
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TABLE E.1 Participants in Early MPEG Proceedings (After [2])
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Computer Manufacturers Apple DEC Hewlett-Packard IBM NEC Olivetti Sun Software Suppliers Microsoft Fluent Machines Prism Audio/Visual Equipment Manufacturers Dolby JVC Matsushita Philips Sony Thomson Consumer Electronics IC Manufacturers Brooktree C-Cube Cypress Inmos Intel IIT LSI Logic Motorola National Semiconductor Rockwell SGS-Thomson Texas Instruments Zoran Universities/Research
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Basic Provisions
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When trying to settle on a specification, it is always important to have a target application in mind [1]. The definition of MPEG-1 (also known as ISO/IEC 11172) was driven by the desire to encode audio and video onto a compact disk. A CD is defined to have a constant bit rate of 1.5 Megabits per second. With this constrained bandwidth, the target video specifications were:
Horizontal resolution of 360 pixels Vertical resolution of 240 pixels for NTSC, and 288 for PAL and SECAM Frame rate of 30 Hz for NTSC, 25 for PAL and SECAM, and 24 for film
A detailed block diagram of an MPEG-1 codec (coder-decoder) is shown in Figure E.6. MPEG uses the JPEG standard for intraframe coding by first dividing each frame of the image into 8 8 blocks, then compressing each
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Columbia University Massachusetts Institute of Technology DLR University of Berlin Fraunhofer Gesellschaft University of Hanover
Figure E.6 A typical MPEG-1 codec: (a) encoder, (b) decoder. (After [8].)
Appendix E
Video and Audio Compression
block independently using DCT-based techniques. Interframe coding is based on motion compensation (MC) prediction that allows bi-directional temporal prediction. What this means in practice is that if a visual element is partially obscured in the current video frame, but it appears unobstructed in a previous or future frame, the data from either frame can be used to fill in the detail in the current frame. The direction of time in the video sequence is not important when searching for redundancies. A block-matching algorithm is used to find the best-matched block, which may belong to either the past frame (forward prediction) or the future frame (backward prediction). The best-matched block may, in fact, be the average of two blocks, one from the previous and the other from the next frame of the target frame (interpolation). In any case, the placement of the best-matched block(s) is used to determine the motion vector(s); blocks predicted on the basis of interpolation have two motion vectors. Frames that are bi-directionally predicted are never used themselves as reference frames.
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