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To allow for a simple, yet upgradeable system, MPEG-2 defines only the functional elements syntax and semantics of coded streams. Using the same system of I-, P-, and B-frames developed for MPEG-1, MPEG-2 employs a six-layer hierarchical structure that breaks the data into simplified units of information, as listed in Table E.2. The top sequence layer defines the decoder constraints by specifying the context of the video sequence. The sequence-layer data header contains information on picture format and application-specific details. The second level allows for random access to the decoding process by having a periodic series of pictures; it is fundamentally this GOP layer that provides the bi-directional frame prediction. Intraframe-coded (I) frames are the entry-point frames, which require no data from other frames in order to reconstruct the image. Between the I-frames lie the predictive (P) frames, which are derived from analyzing previous frames and performing motion estimation. These P-frames require about one third as many bits per frame as I-frames. B-frames, which lie between two Iframes or P-frames, are bi-directionally encoded, making use of past and future frames. The B-frames require only about one-ninth of the data per frame, compared with I-frames. These different compression ratios for the different frame types leads to different data rates, so that buffers are required at both the encoder output and the decoder input to ensure that the sustained data rate is constant. One difference between MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 is that MPEG-2 allows for a variety of data-buffer sizes, to accommodate different picture dimensions and to prevent buffer under- and overflows. The data required to decode a single picture is embedded in the picture layer, which consists of a number of horizontal slice layers, each containing several macroblocks. Each macroblock layer, in turn, is made up of a number of individual blocks. The picture undergoes DCT processing, with the slice layer providing a means of synchronization, holding the precise position of the slice within the image frame. MPEG-2 places the motion vectors into the coded macroblocks for Pframes and B-frames; these are used to improve the reconstruction of predicted pictures. MPEG-2 supports both field- and frame-based prediction, thus accommodating interlaced signals. The last layer of MPEG-2 s video structure is the block layer, which provides the DCT coefficients of either the transformed image information for I-frames or the residual prediction error of B- and P-frames.
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Appendix E
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Two or more contiguous macroblocks within the same row are grouped together to form slices [10]. The order of the macroblocks within a slice is the same as the conventional television raster scan, being from left to right. Slices provide a convenient mechanism for limiting the propagation of errors. Because the coded bit stream consists mostly of variable-length code words, any uncorrected transmission errors will cause a decoder to lose its sense of code word alignment. Each slice begins with a slice start code. Because the MPEG code word assignment guarantees that no legal combination of code words can emulate a start code, the slice start code can be used to regain the sense of code-word alignment after an error. Therefore, when an error occurs in the data stream, the decoder can skip to the start of the next slice and resume correct decoding. The number of slices affects the compression efficiency; partitioning the data stream to have more slices provides for better error recovery, but claims bits that could otherwise be used to improve picture quality. In the DTV system, the initial macroblock of every horizontal row of macroblocks is also the beginning of a slice, with a possibility of several slices across the row.
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The primary coding unit of a video sequence is the individual video frame or picture [10]. A video picture consists of the collection of slices, constituting the active picture area. A video sequence consists of a collection of two or more consecutive pictures. A video sequence commences with a sequence header and is terminated by an end-of-sequence code in the data stream. A video sequence may contain additional sequence headers. Any video-sequence header can serve as an entry-point. An entry point is a point in the coded video bit stream after which a decoder can become properly initialized and correctly parse the bit stream syntax. Two or more pictures (frames) in sequence may be combined into a GOP to provide boundaries for interframe picture coding and the registration of time code. GOPs are optional within both MPEG-2 and the ATSC DTV system. Figure E.9 illustrates a typical time sequence of video frames.
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