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Figure E.9 Sequence of video frames for the MPEG-2/ATSC DTV ssytems. (From [10]. Used with permission.)
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I-Frames. Some elements of the compression process exploit only the spatial redundancy within a single picture (frame or field) [10]. These processes constitute intraframe coding and do not take advantage of the temporal correlation addressed by temporal prediction (interframe) coding. Frames that do not use any interframe coding are referred to as Iframes (where I denotes intraframe-coded). The ATSC video compression system utilizes both intraframe and interframe coding. The use of periodic I-frames facilitates receiver initializations and channel acquisition (for example, when the receiver is turned on or the channel is changed). The decoder also can take advantage of the intraframe-coding mode when uncorrectable channel errors occur. Periodic I-frames are also important in streaming media applications, to enable rapid seeking into a media stream, using fast-forward or jump commands, since an I-frame entry-point is required to restart the video playback. With motion-compensated prediction, an initial frame must be available at the decoder to start the prediction loop. Therefore, a mechanism must be built into the system so that if the decoder loses synchronization for any reason, it can rapidly reacquire tracking. The frequency of occurrence of I-pictures may vary and is selected at the encoder. This allows consideration to be given to the need for random access and the location of scene cuts in the video sequence. Popular streaming media encoders do not currently allow for the manual placement of I-frames at scene cuts or at other significant points. P-Frames. P-frames, where the temporal prediction is in the forward direction only, allow the exploitation of interframe coding techniques to improve the overall compression efficiency and picture quality [10]. P-frames may include portions that are only intraframe-coded.
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Appendix E
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Each macroblock within a P-frame can be either forward predicted or intraframe-coded. B-Frames. The B-frame is a picture type within the coded video sequence that includes prediction from a future frame as well as from a previous frame [10]. The referenced future or previous frames, sometimes called anchor frames, are in all cases either I- or P-frames. The basis of the B-frame prediction is that a video frame is correlated with frames that occur in the past as well as those that occur in the future. Consequently, if a future frame is available to the decoder, a superior prediction can be formed, thus saving bits and improving performance. Some of the consequences of using future frames in the prediction are:
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The B-frame cannot be used for predicting future frames. The transmission order of frames is different from the displayed order of the frames. The encoder and decoder must reorder the video frames, thereby increasing the total latency.
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In the example illustrated in Figure E.9, there is one B-frame between each pair of I- and P-frames. Each frame is labeled with both its display order and transmission order. The I- and P-frames are transmitted out of sequence, so the video decoder has both anchor frames decoded and available for prediction. B-frames are used for increasing the compression efficiency and perceived picture quality when encoding latency is not an important factor. The use of B-frames increases coding efficiency for both interlaced and progressive-scanned material. B-frames are included in the DTV system because the increase in compression efficiency is significant, especially for progressive scanning. The same factors mandate the use of B-frames in streaming media encoding. The choice of the number of bi-directional pictures between any pair of reference (I or P) frames can be determined at the encoder. Motion Estimation. The efficiency of the compression algorithm depends on two things: the creation of an estimate of the image being compressed and subtraction of pixel values of the estimate (or prediction) from the image to be compressed [10]. If the estimate is good, the subtraction will leave a very small residue to be transmitted. In fact, if the predicted estimate were perfect, the difference would be zero for all
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