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Boundary Coding
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When blocks straddle part of the arbitrary-shaped object s boundary, an interesting problem arises. The pixels that lie outside the boundary of the image have to have some value, yet ideally the choice of these pixel values, which form no part of the visible image, shouldn t add coefficient energy to the overall block, or there will be a marked effect on the DCT process. Choosing to make these pixels black, for example, would be a poor choice. To avoid annoying the DCT transformation process, the block must be padded with pixel values that do the least harm. In MPEG-4, all pixels that are not part of the image are given a value equal to the average value of all of the pixels that are part of the image
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Video and Audio Compression
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(note that the pixels that are visible remain unchanged during this operation). The padding is refined by stepping through the pixels that are outside the visible object and performing a correction based on the average value of any neighbors that lie within the object. This process of writing dummy values to those pixels that will not be visible minimizes the energy of the coefficients when the block is DCT transformed.
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Coding Arbitrary-Shaped Video Objects
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With arbitrary-shaped video objects, blocks are either wholly transparent, wholly opaque, or are part of the boundary of the VOP. In the first case, no texture coding is required. In the second, the texture may be intracoded or predicted with motion compensation, as with MPEG-2 macroblocks. For those blocks that form part of the VOP boundary, the shape will either be described as binary (every pixel is either transparent or opaque) or grayscale (supporting pixels with partial transparency). In this case, both the shape and the texture must be coded. The shape (alpha-channel) and texture (video image data) can be intracoded or predictive coded. When coding is predictive, the simplest case is when the motion vector difference (MVD) is zero (i.e., motion vector prediction is perfect). In this case, the motion vector points to an exact match for the block, so the coding simply requires a skip code. If the match is imperfect, residuals may need to be transmitted if the match is not sufficiently good.
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MPEG-4 has another interesting video object, useful for backgrounds. In computer games, the background against which all the action takes place is much larger than the viewable frame size. All the game s characters are superimposed on this background and more of the background is revealed as the characters move around the game space (as the camera following the characters pans). MPEG-4 allows such a sprite to be transmitted once and then updates to the view of the section of sprite to be sent as cropping and warping information. Transmitting the entire sprite before anything else can happen can lead to unacceptable start-up latency, so MPEG-4 allows the sprite to be progressively transmitted and reconstructed at the decoder as needed.
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Appendix E
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Progressive encoding means that the sprite could consist of a 360-degree panoramic view, but only a low-resolution version of part of the panorama need be transmitted at first to minimize delay. Because sprites are always static images, they are coded as I-VOPs.
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Advanced Coding Extensions (ACE)
MPEG-4 Version 2 introduced three new tools to improve coding efficiency for video objects, collectively known as the advanced coding extensions (ACE). These yield improvements in coding efficiency of up to 50%, compared to MPEG-4 Version 1 (and therefore, MPEG-2, to a first approximation). The new tools are discussed in the following sections. Global Motion Compensation. Global Motion Compensation allows the overall motion of the video object to be coded with a very few parameters. If the object remains stationary, or if it moves in its entirety, there is no need to indicate the motion of each component block individually. Quarter Pel Motion Compensation. The improved resolution of motion vectors substantially reduces prediction errors and hence the need to transmit residuals. MPEG-2 used half pel motion compensation. Shape Adaptive DCT. Shape-adaptive DCT may improve the coding efficiency of boundary blocks. Instead of blindly applying a DCT to an 8 8 block (64 pixels), one-dimensional DCT is applied, first vertically, then horizontally, but only to pixels that belong to the visible object (called active pixels). To commence the process, each column of the block is examined for active pixels. For any column that contains active pixels, the pixels are top justified (moved to the top of the column) and a DCT of dimension 1 (number of active pixels in column) is performed. When the vertical transforms are complete, each row in the block is examined for active pixels. For any row containing active pixels, the pixels are left justified and a DCT of dimension 1 (number of active pixels in row) is performed. This results in fewer coefficients to be transmitted. Because the contour of the object is transmitted separately by shape coding, the pixels can be moved back into the right places in the decoder.
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