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Fine grain scalability is also known as signal-to-noise scalability. What happens in the encoder is that the DCT coefficient matrix can be sliced up and sent as a base layer and multiple enhancement layers, which can be transmitted or not according to available bandwidth. The decoder can use the base layer and one or more enhancement layers to reconstruct the image. The way the DCT matrix of coefficients is sliced is by bit plane. If there are 4 bits in the coefficient representations, the base layer may simply take the most significant bit, the first enhancement layer the next most significant bit, and so on. Additionally, low frequency coefficients in the matrix can be artificially weighted, prior to bit slicing, to ensure the base layer contains more of the low frequency components needed for image reconstruction. Note also that with fine grain scalability, downstream relay routers can take DCT coefficients and bit slice them. If the base layer took the top 4 bits and the enhancement layer took the remaining 4 bits of an 8-bit quantized matrix, for example, the router could further slice the enhancement layer into two layers.
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MPEG-4 addresses applications that attempt to transmit video over lossy networks, such as wireless cellular networks, for example. To address these applications, MPEG-4 provides three categories of tool to improve error robustness. These categories are not unique to MPEG-4, but have been used by researchers working on general video error resilience. The three main categories are discussed next. Resynchronization. Resynchronization tools attempt to enable resynchronization between the decoder and the bit stream after a residual error or errors have been detected. In general, the data between the synchronization point prior to the error and the first point where synchronization is reestablished is discarded. Resynchronization tools attempt to minimize the amount of data discarded by the decoder, so that downstream data recovery and error concealment tools can mask the effect of the data loss. MPEG-4 uses a packet approach, similar to the group of blocks (GOB) structure used by ITU standards H.261 and H.263. In these standards, a GOB is defined as one or more rows of macroblocks. The discussion of
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Appendix E
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slices earlier in this appendix showed how they could be used to resynchronize bit streams. GOBs and slices are the same thing. GOBs are delineated by a GOB start code, which is distinct from a picture start code and allows the decoder to resynchronize to the bit stream before the next picture. The GOB approach places start codes spatially. With variable rate encoding, this means that resynchronization markers will be unevenly spaced throughout the bit stream. As a consequence, high motion areas of the picture will be more prone to data loss, which will also be more difficult to conceal. The video packet approach adopted by MPEG-4, in contrast, provides periodic resynchronization markers throughout the bit stream. Marker placement is not based on the number of macroblocks, but on the number of bits contained in that video packet. This marker is distinguishable from all possible VLC codewords as well as the VOP start code. The video packet header contains all the information needed to resynchronize the decoder. It is also possible to link header extensions to provide additional resynchronization information, in case the VOP header has been corrupted. When MPEG-4 error resilience tools are in use, some of the compression efficiency tools must be modified. For example, all predictively coded information must be constrained within a video packet, to prevent the propagation of errors. MPEG-4 has also adopted a second resynchronization method, called fixed interval synchronization. This method requires that the VOP start code and the video packet start codes (resynchronization markers) appear only at legal fixed interval locations in the bit stream. This prevents the decoder from incorrectly interpreting a corrupted bit stream as a VOP start code, since with fixed interval synchronization, the decoder only needs to search for a VOP start code at the beginning of each fixed interval. Data Recovery. After synchronization has been re-established, it is necessary to recover data that would otherwise be lost. MPEG-4 provides tools, which are not simply error correcting codes, but instead are techniques that encode the data in a fundamentally error resilient manner. One of these tools is the reversible variable length code (RVLC). In this approach, the variable length codewords are designed so that they can be read both in the forward and reverse directions, as was mentioned earlier in the discussion of texture coding. In essence, the resynchronization marker may be used as a starting point to read the bit stream in reverse order, up to the error in the stream that caused syn-
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