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Figure E.16 ISO/MPEG-1 Layer 2 system: (a) enoder block diagram, (b) decoder block diagram. (After [15].)
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The PCM signal is also fed to a fast Fourier transform (FFT) running in parallel with the filter bank. The aural sensitivities of the human auditory system are exploited by using this FFT process to detect the differences between the wanted and unwanted sounds and the quantization noise already present in the signal and then to adjust the signal-tomask thresholds, conforming to a preset perceptual model. This psychoacoustic model is only found in the coder, thus making the decoder less complex and permitting the freedom to exploit future improvements in coder design. The actual number of levels for each quantizer is determined by the bit allocation. This is arrived at by setting the signal-to-mask ratio (SMR) parameter, defined as the difference between the minimum masking threshold and the maximum signal
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Appendix E
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level. This minimum masking threshold is calculated using the psychoacoustic model and provides a reference noise level of just noticeable noise for each subband. In the decoder, after demultiplexing and deciphering of the audio and side information data, a dual-synthesis filter bank reconstructs the linear PCM signal in blocks of 32 output samples (Figure E-16b). A scale factor is determined for each 12-subband sample block. The maximum of the absolute values of these 12 samples generates a scale factor word consisting of 6 bits, a range of 63 different levels. Because each frame of audio data in Layer 2 corresponds to 36 subband samples, this process will generate 3 scale factors per frame. However, exploiting some redundancy in the data can reduce the transmitted data rate for these scale factors. Three successive subband scale factors are analyzed and a pattern is determined. This pattern, which is obviously related to the nature of the audio signal, will decide whether one, two, or all three scale factors are required. The decision will be communicated by the insertion of an additional scale factor select information (SCFSI) data word of 2 bits. In the case of a fairly stationary tonal-type sound, there will be very little change in the scale factors and only the largest one of the three is transmitted; the corresponding data rate will be (6 2) or 8 bits. However, in a complex sound with rapid changes in content, the transmission of two or even three scale factors may be required, producing a maximum bit rate demand of (6 6 6 2) or 20 bits. Compared with Layer 1, this method of coding the scale factors reduces the allocation of data bits required for them by half. The number of data bits allocated to the overall bit pool is limited or fixed by the data rate parameters. These parameters are set out by a combination of sampling frequency, compression ratio and, where applicable, the transmission medium. In the case of 20 kHz stereo being transmitted over ISDN, for example, the maximum data rate is 384 kilobits per second, sampling at 48 kHz, with a compression ratio of 4:1. After the number of side information bits required for scale factors, bit allocation codes, CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check), and other functions have been determined, the remaining bits left in the pool are used in the recoding of the audio subband samples. The allocation of bits for the audio is determined by calculating the SMR, via the FFT, for each of the 12 subband sample blocks. The bit allocation algorithm then selects one of the 15 available quantizers with a range such that the overall bit rate limitations are met and the quantization noise is masked as far as possible. If the composition of the audio signal is such that there are not
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