barcode in vb.net Figure E.18 Functional block diagram of the MPEG-2 AAC coding system. in Software

Maker Code 128 in Software Figure E.18 Functional block diagram of the MPEG-2 AAC coding system.

Figure E.18 Functional block diagram of the MPEG-2 AAC coding system.
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MPEG-2 AAC provides the capability of up to 48 main audio channels, with sampling frequencies between 8 kHz and 96 kHz, 16 low frequency effects channels, 16 overdub/multilingual channels, and 10 data
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streams. By comparison, ISO/MPEG-1 Layer 1 provides two channels and Layer 2 provides 5.1 channels (maximum). AAC is not backward compatible with the Layer 1 and Layer 2 codes, since MPEG-2 AAC uses a different type of transform than MPEG-1 audio coding. In contrast to the hybrid filter bank of ISO/MPEG Audio Layer 3, chosen for reasons of compatibility but displaying certain structural weaknesses, MPEG-2 AAC uses a plain modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT). Together with the increased window length (2048 instead of 1152 lines per transformation) the MDCT outperforms the filter banks of previous coding methods. By allowing finer control of quantization resolution through the choice of MDCT, the given bit rate can be used more efficiently. MPEG-2 AAC also improves upon the three-layered MPEG-1 audio coding tools by providing a low sample rate extension to address very low bit rate applications with limited bandwidth requirements. Sampling frequencies of 16, 22.05 and 24 kHz have been added to the 32, 44.1 and 48 kHz sampling frequencies specified in the MPEG-1 audio coding layers and the bit rate now extends down to 8 kilobits per second. AAC is an important tool in the coding of natural audio in MPEG-4. With its superior sound quality for a given bit rate, or lower bit rate for a given sound quality, applications that rely on MPEG-1 Layer 3 compression, such as the popular portable MP3 players available today, will begin to adopt AAC in preference to earlier compression standards. In particular, the advantages for streaming media delivery of surround sound experiences, using limited bandwidth, will make AAC an attractive choice for MPEG-4 compliant streaming media applications. Dolby AC-3 5.1 Channel Surround Sound. Dolby AC-3 is a proprietary multichannel perceptual coding technique that predates MPEG-2 AAC. It does many of the same things as AAC; namely deliver surround sound to end-users. It is mentioned here for historical perspective and because the system finds application in DVD, ATSC DTV, and D-cinema. Although Dolby helped in the development of AAC, they have also actively and consistently promoted their own AC-3 technology. As with AAC, AC-3 allows bit-rate and number of channels to be tailored to particular applications. It combines high quality sounds with good data efficiency, delivering multichannel sound at a lower data rate than is needed for just one channel on a CD. Dolby AC-3 had its origins in developing a digital multichannel sound delivery system for feature film presentation in movie theaters, when four channels of sound were matrixed onto two optical tracks. When Dolby Stereo films, as they are known, are transferred to two channel
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Appendix E
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video formats, like VHS, the four-channel encoding survives intact. Consumers began constructing home theaters , with surround sound systems, to get a similar sound field to that which they would have experienced watching films in a theater from their videotapes. The actual development of the AC-3 coding system was in response to a requirement for a four or more discrete channel audio solution for the high definition television (HDTV) system. Like the Dolby Digital film format, AC-3 provides separate channels for left, right, and center speakers at the front; two surround speakers at the sides; and a subwoofer at the listener s option. AC-3 was designed to provide the following features:
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Data identifying each program s original production format mono, stereo, matrixed, or discrete surround can be sent to eliminate confusion at playback or reception. Program material can be coded when it is originally mixed so that subjectively constant, dialog-keyed loudness is maintained as the listener switches between program sources. No alteration of program dynamics is involved, only playback volume. Decoders can be designed to provide optimum mix-downs from multichannel programming, such as a matrix-encoded two-track mix for analog Dolby Surround decoding, a conventional stereo mix, or even a mono mix. When programs with wide dynamic range, such as movie soundtracks, are played at low volume, the system can apply appropriate compression to preserve low-level content. The degree of compression can be made to vary according to need. The listener can program the AC-3 decoder (known commercially as a Dolby Surround Digital decoder) to route nondirectional low bass only to those channels in the system that have wide range speakers or subwoofers.
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Dolby AC-3 was the first perceptual coding standard designed specifically to code multichannel digital audio. It benefited from the development of two other perceptual coding systems, Dolby AC-1 and AC-2, and from the development of what are in essence analog perceptual coding systems: the full catalog of Dolby professional and consumer noise reduction systems. Indeed, Dolby Laboratories experience with audio noise reduction was useful in developing AC-3 s effective data rate reduction, since the fewer the bits used to describe an audio signal, the greater the noise and Dolby had made a decent living from reducing noise.
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