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MPLS is a forwarding scheme that evolved from Cisco s tag switching. Each MPLS packet has a header consisting of a 20-bit label, a 3-bit class of service field, a 1-bit label stack indicator, and an 8-bit TTL (Time To Live) field. A router that implements MPLS is called a Label Switched Router (LSR). It works by examining only the label in the forwarding packet. The network protocol can be IP or others, hence the name MultiProtocol Label Switching. An LSR uses a Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) to set up Label Switched Paths (LSPs). An LSP is similar to an ATM Virtual Circuit (VC). There is some debate about whether or not RSVP should be extended to act as an LDP. The proposal is called RSVPTE (Resource Reservation Protocol with Traffic Engineered tunnels). An alternative that has been proposed is the CR-LDP (Constraint-based Routing Label Distribution Protocol), but this has had less support so far. RSVP-TE provides bandwidth reservation capabilities on top of the MPLS core protocol. MPLS LSPs can be used as tunnels. When a packet enters the tunnel, its path is completely determined by the label assigned by the ingress LSR. The packet is guaranteed to emerge at the end of the tunnel. MPLS is significant because it provides faster packet classification and forwarding and an efficient tunneling mechanism. Along with routing extensions such as OSPF/TE (Open Shortest Path First protocol for Traffic Engineering), which allow routing around congested paths rather than always choosing the shortest path, and which meet varying SLAs, MPLS LSPs form a complete package for edge and core routers and switches to provide the infrastructure to support integrated services, when coupled with the data classification facilities provided by differentiated services. Integrated and differentiated services provide graceful degradation of performance when traffic load is heavy. However, as is the case when a flight is undersold, when traffic is light there is little difference between integrated/differentiated service and best-effort service. Why not avoid congestion in the first place This is the motivation behind traffic engineering. Traffic is the result of insufficient network infrastructure, or, more commonly, uneven traffic distribution on the network. Uneven distribution can be caused by the current dynamic routing protocols, such as RIP (Routing Information Protocol), OSPF, and IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System), because they always select the shortest paths to forward packets. As a result, the short paths may clog while links along a longer path are idle. The Equal Cost Multi-Path option of OSPF is useful in distributing load to several shortest paths, but if there is only one shortest path, it doesn t help. Traffic engineering is the
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process of arranging how traffic flows through networks so that congestion caused by uneven network utilization can be avoided. Constraintbased routing is an important tool for making the traffic engineering process automatic. Avoiding congestion complements graceful degradation of the network under load, so traffic engineering complements differentiated services. Constraint-based routing is used to compute routes that are subject to many constraints. The goals are to select routes that can meet QoS requirements and increase utilization of the network. Constraint-based routing considers not just the topology of the network, but also the requirement of the flow, the availability of resources on links, and other possible policies specified by the network administrators. A constraintbased router may find a longer, but lightly loaded path better than the heavily loaded shortest path. As a result, network traffic is distributed more evenly. OSPF-TE and IS-IS/TE distribute bandwidth information as extensions to their link-state advertisements. Constraint-based routing better meets the need of QoS requirements for unimpeded flows of data and improves network utilization, but increases communication and computation overhead and the size of routing tables, and introduces possible routing instability. Also, longer paths may consume more resources. Because constraint-based routing algorithms recompute routing tables more frequently than dynamic routing algorithms do, they can produce instability, shifting traffic fruitlessly, again and again, to try to avoid congestion. Constraint-based routing is similar to the dynamic/adaptive routing used in telephone and ATM networks. It helps differentiated services to be delivered better. RSVP and constraint-based routing are independent but complementary. When MPLS and constraint-based routing are used together, they make each other more useful. With these protocols and technologies, companies are now building QoS features on top of existing IP infrastructures. The challenges now are in finding methods to design, manage, and operate these networks. In other words, the final frontier in QoS build-out is in provisioning. There are often questions about whether or not multicast provides better end-user stream playback than unicast. Multicast streaming has no real linkage to QoS provision, other than reducing the amount of bandwidth and other network resources required to supply streaming media to a large number of consumers. Ultimately, delivering QoS will not be so much a technical challenge as a human resources and people-management issue. Maintaining network performance and integrity boils down to finding, maintaining, and motivating dedicated, skilled network administrators and technicians,
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