qr code vb.net free Figure 2.27 Subnet spanning tree in multicast routing. in Software

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multicast routing, a single router is selected from all its neighboring routers, by IGMP, to be the designated router for each physical network. Designated routers construct a spanning tree that connects all members of an IP multicast group (Figure 2.27). A spanning tree has just enough connectivity so that there is only one path between every pair of routers and it is loop free. If each router knows which of its lines belong to the spanning tree, it can copy an incoming multicast datagram onto all of its outgoing branches, generating only the minimum number of copies. Messages are only replicated when the spanning tree branches, thus minimizing the number of copies of the messages that are transmitted through the network. This spanning tree must be dynamically updated at the designated router, since members are joining and leaving groups all the time. Branches that no longer have recipients must be pruned. The spanning algorithm used and how multicast routers interact depends on the objectives of the routing protocol.
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Figure 2.27 Subnet spanning tree in multicast routing.
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A Subnet
A Spanning Tree
If almost all the hosts belong to the same group, then the group members are said to be densely distributed throughout the network. When this is the case, and bandwidth is plentiful, the best approach to routing is dense mode, where the network is periodically flooded with multicast traffic to set up and maintain the spanning tree. Dense-mode rout-
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ing protocols include Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP), Multicast Open Shortest Path First (MOSPF), and Protocol Independent Multicast Dense Mode (PIM-DM). When multicast group members are sparsely distributed throughout the network and bandwidth is not widely available, then sparse mode routing is the best choice. Sparse mode does not mean that there are fewer group members, just that they are more widely dispersed. Rather than flooding the network, which in this case would be unnecessarily wasteful of bandwidth, sparse-mode routing protocols rely on more selective techniques to set up and maintain spanning trees. Sparsemode routing protocols include Core Based Trees (CBT) and Protocol Independent Multicast Sparse Mode (PIM-SM). Because of the complexity of establishing spanning trees in many-tomany applications and because even router software can contain bugs, multicast routing is prone to the danger of feedback loops (where packets recirculate on the network ad infinitum) and cascade failures (where the packets don t reach all the intended recipients). Such a bug once took out all the IP routers in New Zealand. To avoid these problems, there have been proposals for simplified routing for particular applications and scenarios. One is the Single Source Multicast proposal, which addresses the one-to-many application scenario. IP multicast is primarily a routing protocol, rather than a transport protocol. Therefore, all the protocols relevant to streaming can be used with IP multicast, including UDP, RTP, RTCP, RTSP, and the QoS protocol RSVP. Note that the inclusion of QoS considerations adds complexity to the already complex task of establishing optimum multicast routings, since paths chosen in the spanning tree must also meet jitter, delay, and packet-loss specifications. Currently there is a great deal of research being done on reliable multicasting. There are no IETF standards for reliable multicast, but working groups are examining various commercial solutions, evaluating the technologies for possible standardization. We have discussed how a member joins a multicast group, but how does a user or application learn about forthcoming IP multicast sessions There are out-of-band methods for announcing sessions, like email and Web sites, but there is also a need for mechanisms to:
Announce sessions Determine temporary multicast addresses and ports for those sessions Issue invitations (for example, to conferences) Negotiate parameters such as memberships, rights data, media encoding, and encryption keys
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