code 128 font vb.net TYPE I SUPERSTRING THEORY in Java

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TYPE I SUPERSTRING THEORY
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Type I superstring theory can be characterized as follows: It includes both open and closed strings. It describes unoriented strings. It has N = 1 supersymmetry. It has SO(32) gauge symmetry. In addition, type I superstrings can have charges attached to their ends called Chan-Paton factors, a topic we will explore in a later chapter.
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TYPE II A
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Type II A theory describes closed, oriented superstrings. We can summarize the theory as follows: It only includes closed strings. It has N = 2 supersymmetry. It has a U(1) gauge symmetry. Since this theory only has a U(1) gauge symmetry, it is not large enough to describe all the particle states seen in nature. It can describe gravity and electromagnetism, but cannot describe the weak or strong forces. The theory has two supercharges, and 1 and 2 have opposite chirality. Practically speaking, this means that each fermion has a partner state with opposite chirality.
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TYPE II B
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Type II B theory also describes closed strings, also oriented. Although it includes fermionic states because it is a superstring theory, it has no gauge symmetry and so can only describe gravity. Like type II A theory, it has N = 2 supersymmetry, but 1 and 2 have the same chirality. This remedies the dif culty in type II A theory in that the fermions described in type II B theory do not have partners of opposite chirality. But the lack of a gauge group indicates the theory cannot be the whole story as far as a uni ed theory of physics.
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HETEROTIC SO(32)
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There are two heterotic theories that both describe closed, oriented strings. A heterotic theory is a kind of fusion between bosonic and superstring theory. The left movers and right movers are treated using different theories. We describe modes moving in one direction using bosonic string theory, and describe the modes moving in the opposite direction using N = 1 supersymmetry. The extra 16 dimensions of the bosonic theory are regarded as abstract, mathematical entities rather than actual space-time coordinates (like superspace). There are two heterotic theories, both with large gauge groups that can describe all particles in nature. The rst has SO(32).
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HETEROTIC E8 E8
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Similar to Heterotic SO(32) theory but has the gauge group E8 E8.
Dualities
The state of string theory at this point appears to be a random mess, but the discovery of a set of dualities which relate the ve theories amongst themselves saved the day. The fact is that the ve theories are all related to one another, and we can transform between them. This has led physicists to believe that there exists an underlying theory. The ve superstring theories arise as different aspects or solutions of the underlying theory. While some aspects of the potentially underlying theory have been characterized, the actual underlying theory remains unknown. It goes by the name of M-theory.
T-DUALITY
We have already studied one duality in detail in Chap. 8, T-duality. To review Tduality relates a theory with a small compact dimension to a theory where that same dimension is large. T-duality relates string theories as follows: It relates type II A and type II B theory. It relates the two heterotic theories. T-duality can be summarized by saying that if we transform from a small to a large distance scale we exchange momentum and winding modes (and vice versa). T-duality relates type II A and type II B theory in that if we move from small to large distance in type II A theory, the theory is transformed into type II B theory and
CHAPTER 10 A Summary of Superstring Theory
vice versa (or switch momentum and winding modes). The same holds for the two heterotic theories. This means that type II A and type II B are really the same theory, and the two heterotic theories are really the same theory.
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