See http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0204479 for an informal discussion. in Java

Creating QR Code in Java See http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0204479 for an informal discussion.

See http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0204479 for an informal discussion.
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The scenario depicted here solves many cosmological riddles, if it is to be believed. First let s consider two major riddles solved by in ation: homogeneity and isotropy. In ation seeks to address this problem (explaining why the universe is homogeneous and isotropic) by postulating the existence of a eld that turns on for a brief instant causing the universe to expand exponentially. While this scenario has been quanti ed in a plausible manner, it is not unreasonable to have doubts about a theory that describes a eld that turns on for a icker of an instant and turns off as fast, never to be seen again in the entire history of the universe. So what does the ekpyrotic scenario have to offer In the ekpyrotic scenario, there are two at, parallel branes that collide like two nearly perfectly at metal plates, say. Since the branes are parallel they collide at the same time (well almost anyway, let quantum theory intervene) at all points along the branes. This action endows the visible brane with the same energy density at all points with constant initial temperature called the ekpyrotic temperature. This explains why the universe looks the same everywhere in all directions and why the cosmic microwave background is the same everywhere the universe began with the same initial conditions at all points. The atness problem is solved by setting the initial conditions of the branes to the vacuum state. In the vacuum state the branes are at and empty, so no mysterious ne tuning of matter density is required to make the universe turn out at. The reasonable assumption that the branes start off in the vacuum state forces them to be at. Now, of course, quantum theory means that everything is not as exact as described so far. Quantum uctuations in the branes called brane ripples result from the movement of the branes along the fth dimension. These uctuations mean that not every point on the brane collides with the other brane at exactly the same instant. Instead, most will collide at some average time, while some will collide earlier than average and some will collide later than average. Hence, rather than producing a universe with an absolutely uniform temperature, the collision will produce a universe with some regions slightly colder than average (because they collided earlier) and some regions slightly hotter than average (because they collided later). These are the seeds the universe needs to produce the large scale structures of the universe like the galaxies. Once again, quantum effects are seen to give birth to large scale cosmological structure, providing a link between the very large and the very small in the universe. One distasteful aspect of general relativity is the presence of singularities in the theory. These are points in space-time where quantities like curvature (the gravitational eld) and temperature blow up to in nity. The big-bang singularity is one such example. In the ekpyrotic model, the singularity is far milder than in classical general relativity. Two branes move toward each other, they collide, and then they bounce off and return to their initial positions. The big bang is an event that occurs with a
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CHAPTER 16 String Theory and Cosmology
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large but nite temperature. There is no singularity corresponding to in nite curvature. Matter and radiation densities on the branes are nite. And there is no in nitely small point where all of matter, space, and time supposedly sprung from by magical at. However, there is singular behavior at the big crunch when the two branes collide, because the extra dimension between them disappears during the collision. After the branes separate and move off from each other the extra dimension reappears. Of course, while this model dispenses with much of the singular behavior of general relativity, it may be just as hard to believe that space and time always existed. In the end, experiment and observation will be our guides to determine in a scienti c manner which scenario is closer to the truth. The ekpyrotic scenario answers another mystery of cosmology, the origin of matter. During the collision the kinetic energy of motion of the branes is converted to heat or thermal energy. This is just like a car crash, where some of the energy of motion of the cars is converted to heat. In the case of the branes, the heat energy can be used to create matter via the Einstein relation E = mc 2. The current form of the ekpyrotic scenario is called the cyclic model of the universe. It proposes that The big bang is not the origin of time. The universe always existed and runs through a repeated cycle of brane collisions. A cycle in the history of the universe goes as follows: Two branes collide providing a big bang which acts as a transition between cycles. Matter and radiation are created. The hot big-bang phase creates large-scale structure in the universe. This is followed by a period of slow but accelerated expansion where the universe cools down and dilutes. The ekpyrotic scenario provides an alternative to in ation that can be used to explain many cosmological mysteries. Suprisingly, they may be able to be distinguished by observational tests (at least in principle). In ation predicts that gravitational waves are scale invariant. This is not the case for the ekpyrotic model.
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We began exploring cosmological scenarios by considering the Kasner metric, which allows some dimensions to contract while others expand as the universe evolves. Models of this type are not satisfactory and so have been discarded. The Randall-Sundrum model imagines the universe to be constructed out of two branes
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