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Boundaries are the areas where two components interact. For example, the line drawn between two boxes in a computer model diagram represents boundaries.
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2: Common Architectures and Protocols
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Brittleness is the degree to which small changes will impact large portions of the system. Software tends to be unwieldy for many reasons, but a primary reason is brittleness. Software breaks before it bends; it demands perfection in a universe that prefers statistics. This in turn leads to legacy lock-in and other perversions. The distance between the ideal computers architects imagine and the real-world computer systems we know and work on is unfortunate and due in large part to brittleness.
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Capabilities, Friction, and Layering
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Capabilities are the nonfunctional, observable system qualities including scalability, manageability, performance, availability, reliability, and security, which are defined in terms of context. Capabilities are discussed later in the chapter, in the section Capabilities of an Architecture. Friction refers to how much interaction occurs between two components. Friction is measured in terms of how a change in one component affects both components. Layering is a hierarchy of separation.
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Principles of Architecture
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For system architects, all techniques for decomposing (breaking a large object into smaller component parts) software systems address two main concerns:
n Most systems are too complex to comprehend in their entirety. n Different audiences require different perspectives of a system.
The next few paragraphs describe techniques for decomposing an architecture using concepts known as layers and tiers.
Layering
The layers of architecture are systems in themselves, and they do what all systems do: they obtain input from their environment and provide output to their environment. Figure 2-4 shows a depiction of the architectural layers in an application system.
Principles of Architecture
FIGURE 2-4
Architectural layers
Bidirectional-layered systems provide and procure major services at their upper and lower sides. Unidirectional-layered systems procure major services in one direction while providing major services in the opposite direction. Most engineering disciplines, especially software, strive to construct unidirectional layered systems, or strict layering. The services a layer provides at its upper side make it possible for a higher layer to operate, while the services it procures through its lower side are those the layer requires for its own operation. In strict layering, classes or objects in a layer should depend, for compilation and linking purposes (physical dependency purposes), on classes or objects within the same or lower layers. Constructing a layer and its objects in such a manner makes it possible to construct lower layers before higher ones. At the same time, classes or objects in one single-layer package should not have a cyclic dependency on objects in other packages either within or outside the layer. This eliminates spaghettilike physical dependencies, which cause small changes to ripple through a larger number of code units than they should. It also helps to lessen compilation and interpretation times. What makes it possible to swap one layer for another is a well-known layer interface protocol the Internet Interoperability Protocol (IIOP) that lies between the layer and both its upper and lower adjacent layers.
Tiers
In a multi-tier environment, the client implements the presentation logic (thin client). The business logic is implemented on an application server(s), and the data resides on a database server(s). The following three component layers thus define a multi-tier architecture:
n A front-end component, which is responsible for providing portable
presentation logic, such as an web server
n A back-end component, which provides access to dedicated services, such as
a database server
2: Common Architectures and Protocols
n A middle-tier component(s), which allows users to share and control business
logic by isolating it from the actual application, such as an application server Figure 2-5 shows a three-tiered architecture. Advantages of multi-tier client/server architectures include the following:
n Changes to the user interface or to the application logic are largely
independent from one another, allowing the application to evolve easily to meet new requirements.
n Network bottlenecks are minimized because the application layer does not
transmit extra data to the client; instead, it transmits only what is needed to handle a task.
n When business logic changes are required, only the server has to be updated.
In two-tier architectures, each client must be modified when logic changes.
n The client is insulated from database and network operations. The client can
access data easily without having to know where data is or how many servers are on the system.
n Database connections can be pooled and are thus shared by several users,
which greatly reduce the cost associated with per-user licensing.
FIGURE 2-5
Architectural tiers
Principles of Architecture
n The organization has database independence because the data layer is written
using standard SQL, which is platform independent. The enterprise is not tied to vendor-specific stored procedures.
n The application layer can be written in standard third- or fourth-generation
languages, such as Java or C, with which the organization s in-house programmers are experienced.
Basic Three-Tier Java Technology Architecture
The three-tier Java architecture is achieved by using interactive components HTML, applets, the Java application that resides on the client, and the servlets and JSPs that reside on the middle tier. JDBC communication is used on the middle tier to create the persistence data that resides or the third or back-end tier which is the database layer. Table 2-1 shows these technologies and where they reside in the architecture.
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