barcode in vb.net 2008 n HTTP basic n HTTP digest n FORM based n HTTPS mutual in Java

Creator Quick Response Code in Java n HTTP basic n HTTP digest n FORM based n HTTPS mutual

n HTTP basic n HTTP digest n FORM based n HTTPS mutual
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Identify Locations for Implementation of Security Features
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In HTTP basic authentication, the web server authenticates a principal using the user name and password obtained from the web client. The following process shows the conversation between the client browser and the web container to help elaborate on the basic authentication mechanism. 1. Client browser attempts to access a protected resource by sending an HTTP GET request for example:
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GET /secure/declarative.html HTTP/1.1 Host: ucny.com
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2. The web container sends back a challenge to the client to authenticate. The WWW-Authenticate header within the response contains the type of the authentication mechanism required and the security realm:
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HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized WWW-Authenticate: Basic realm="weblogic"
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3. The user enters a user ID and a password for the security realm, and the request is resubmitted along with an additional HTTP header whose value contains the authentication mechanism, the security realm, and the credentials. The credentials are formed by concatenating the user ID, a colon, and the password and then encoding this using the base-64 encoding algorithm. The following HTTP GET request contains the base-64 encoded credentials:
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GET /secure/declarative.html HTTP/1.1 Host: ucny.com Authorization: Basic c3lzdGVtOnBhc3N3b3Jk
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4. The server will then attempt to authenticate the credentials within the security realm. If unsuccessful, the server will prompt again for valid credentials. If the credentials are valid, the identity will be checked against the authorization constraint. If the identity is permitted, access to the resource is allowed; otherwise, it is denied. Basic authentication is limited, because HTTP is a stateless protocol. Once authenticated, a browser has to send this authentication data along with each and every client request. This is clearly a security threat because the request is not encrypted and can be captured and then retransmitted by a determined unauthorized individual. What s more, base-64 encoding is simple to decode and gives the hacker a real user ID and password that can be used to gain access to other protected resources. This potentially opens up the enterprise to the threat based upon a compromise of accountability. For these reasons, it is pragmatic to use basic authentication with an encrypted link and server authentication, more commonly known as digest authentication.
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Digest authentication is an improvement over basic authentication because it allows the client to prove knowledge of a password without actually transmitting it across the network. The web client authenticates by sending the server a message digest as part of the HTTP request. This message digest is calculated by taking parts of the message along with the client s password and passing them though a one-way hash algorithm. The mechanism works similarly to basic authentication, but in this case, the web container sends back some additional data with the challenge to the client to authenticate.
HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized WWW-Authenticate: Digest realm="ucny", qop="auth", nonce="7fef9f6789b0526151d6efbd12196cdc", opaque="c8202b69f571bdf3eerft43ce6ee2466"
The WWW-Authenticate header contains the name of the authentication mechanism (Digest), the realm ("ucny"), and some additional parameters to authenticate. These additional parameters include the nonce, or number once, which is a value that is used by the server and is valid for the current authentication sequence only. The browser client must then take the user name, password, realm, nonce, HTTP method, and request Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and calculate a digest. The digest, a fixed-length encoding, has the properties that hide the actual data. The client will then resubmit the HTTP request along with a response parameter that is the calculated digest:
GET /secure/declarative.html HTTP/1.1 Host: ucny.com Authorization: Digest username="system", realm="weblogic", qop="auth", nonce="7fef9f6789b0526151d6efbd12196cdc", opaque="c8202b69f571bdf3eerft43ce6ee2466", response="5773a30ebe9e6ce90bcb5a535b4dc417"
The server in turn calculates the message digest from the inbound request and then compares it to the response value. If the values are not equal, the server responds with a 401 Unauthorized error. If the values are equal, the credentials are deemed valid and then subsequently used for the authorization check to determine whether the client should have access to the protected resource. If the user is authorized, access to the resource is granted. If the authorization step fails, the server responds with a 403 Access Denied error. Form-based authentication allows for the use of a custom HTML form as the user interface for capturing the authentication information. However, as in basic authentication, the target server is not authenticated, and the authentication information is transmitted as plain text and as such is still vulnerable.
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