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Identify Locations for Implementation of Security Features
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//Configuring Web Component Identity Selection Policies <web-app> <servlet> <run-as> <role-name>guest</role-name> </run-as> ... </servlet> ... </web-app>
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Authorization is the mechanism that controls caller access and interaction with application resources or components. The caller s credentials (identity), which can also be anonymous or arbitrarily set by the caller, can be determined via authentication contexts that are available to the called component. Access can then be determined by comparing the caller s credentials with the access control rules for the required component or resource. These access control rules are in effect a matching of the application s capabilities with the caller s permissions. The application s capabilities define what can be performed within the application, and the caller s permissions define what the caller is allowed to perform. In the JEE architecture, the container provides the border patrol between callers requiring access to the target resources and components that execute within the container. So on an inbound call, the container compares the caller s credentials with the access control rules for the target component or resource. If the rules are satisfied, the call will continue; if not, the call is rejected. Authorization in the JEE environment can be enforced in two ways: declaratively, configured by the deployer and managed by the container, or programmatically, embedded in and managed by the component. Declarative authorization controls access from outside of the application code, whereas programmatic authorization controls access from within the application code. The pros and cons for each technique are detailed in Table 10-4. The client to a JEE application typically uses the application container to interact with enterprise resources in the web or EJB layer. Resources that are secured (or protected) have authorization rules that are either declared in deployment descriptors or embedded within component code. These rules control the access to the components, and clients will need to present credentials to be evaluated against the access rules that are in place.
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10: Security
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TABLE 10-4
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Declarative authorization (external) Programmatic authorization (internal)
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Continued flexibility once application is developed. Easily viewed and interpreted by deployer. Provides fine-grained flexibility.
Cons
May not provide enough finegrained flexibility. No flexibility after application is developed. Functionality is buried within code.
Authorization Enforced by the Container (Declarative)
As mentioned, declarative authorization is established externally to the web or EJB component. It is defined within the deployment descriptor files. Entries within these files map the application permissions (usually defined by the assembler) to the policies or mechanisms that exist in the actual target environment. The deployment descriptor file contains definitions that associate the security roles (logical privileges) with components and the privileges required for permission to access components. The deployer assigns security roles to specific callers, thus establishing the abilities of users in the target environment.
Using Declarative Authorization
A client typically uses a JEE application s container to access enterprise resources in the web or EJB tier. To control access to a web resource declaratively, an application component provider or application assembler must specify the security-constraint element along with the auth-constraint subelement in the application deployment descriptor. The following deployment descriptor excerpt shows the specification of a protected web resource:
<security-constraint> <web-resource-collection> <web-resource-name>SecurePages</web-resource-name> <description>Security constraint for protected resources</description> <url-pattern>/secure/*</url-pattern> <http-method>POST</http-method> <http-method>GET</http-method> </web-resource-collection> <auth-constraint> <description>Users in this role can login</description> <role-name>secure_role</role-name> </auth-constraint> ... </security-constraint>
Identify Locations for Implementation of Security Features
This excerpt indicates to the container that the URL conforming to the pattern / secure/* can be accessed only by users that are in the secure_role role. However, some web content typically does not need to be protected with authorization rules. This unrestricted access is achieved simply by not adding an authentication rule. To protect or declaratively control access to an enterprise bean resource, the application component provider or application assembler can declare security roles and the methods of the bean s interfaces (remote, home, local, and local home) that each security role is allowed to call. This is declared using method-permission elements in the deployment descriptor. The following deployment descriptor excerpt shows two method-permission elements. The first refers to method2 of all of the interfaces (which could be remote, home, local remote, and local home) of the enterprise bean. The second refers to method3 on the remote interface of the same enterprise bean.
<assembly-descriptor> ... <security-role> <role-name>usr_role</role-name> </security-role> <security-role> <role-name>adm_role</role-name> </security-role> ... <method-permission> <description>remote method2 access</description> <role-name>usr_role</role-name> <method> <ejb-name>DeclarativeSecurity</ejb-name> <method-name>method2</method-name> </method> </method-permission> <method-permission> <description>remote method3 access</description> <role-name>adm_role</role-name> <method> <ejb-name>DeclarativeSecurity</ejb-name> <method-intf>Remote</method-intf> <method-name>method3</method-name> </method> </method-permission> ... </assembly-descriptor>
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