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Use case diagrams are closely connected to scenarios. A scenario is an example of what happens when someone interacts with the system. For example, here is a scenario for a security trade: a trader accesses an Internet-based system and chooses the type of security he or she wants to place a trade order to buy or sell (see Figure 3-10).
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FIGURE 3-10
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Annotated use case diagram
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3: Object-Oriented Analysis and Design
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Figure 3-10 shows a trade use case for the online trading site. The actor is a trader. The connection between actor and use case is a communication association. Actors are represented by stick figures. Use cases are represented by ovals. A common issue regarding drawing use cases is having two actions tied to each other, essentially showing a flowchart. In Figure 3-10, the case study trading system menu is invoked for the Order entry and browse functionality and subsequent calls to the Stratus CTPS and Oracle database. Lines that link actors to use cases represent communications. A use case diagram is a collection of actors, use cases, and their communications. A single use case can have multiple actors. A system boundary rectangle separates the system from the external actors. A use case generalization shows that one use case is a special kind of another use case. Use case diagrams are important to use when you are
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n Determining new requirements n Communicating with clients their simplicity makes use case diagrams a
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good way to communicate the system to users
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n Validating the system the different scenarios for a use case make a good set
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Class Diagram
A class diagram provides an overview of a system by showing its classes and the relationships among them. Class diagrams are static; they display what interacts but not what happens when they do interact. The class diagram shown in Figure 3-11 models an EJB session bean used to order equities from a securities market. The central method is makeOrder, which creates and returns an OrderBean. Associated with it is the makeUser, which creates and returns a UserBean. UML class notation is a rectangle divided into three parts: class name, attributes, and operations. Names of abstract classes, such as com.ucny.trading.ejb.sessionbeans.AccessData, are in italics. Relationships among classes are the connecting links. A class diagram can have three kinds of relationships:
n Association is a relationship between instances of the two classes. An
association exists between two classes if an instance of one class must know about the other to perform its work. In a diagram, an association is a link connecting two classes.
Uni ed Modeling Language
FIGURE 3-11
Annotated class diagram
n Aggregation is an association in which one class belongs to a collection. An
aggregation shows a diamond end pointing to the part containing the whole.
n Generalization is an inheritance link indicating one class is a superclass of
another. A generalization shows a triangle pointing to the superclass. An association has two ends. An end may include a role name to clarify the nature of the association. For example, an OrderDetail is a line item of each Order.
3: Object-Oriented Analysis and Design
A navigability arrow on an association shows which direction the association can be traversed or queried. An OrderDetail can be queried about its Item, but not the other way around. The arrow also lets you know who owns the association's implementation; in this case, OrderDetail has an Item. Associations with no navigability arrows are bidirectional. The multiplicity of an association end is the number of possible instances of the class associated with a single instance of the other end. Multiplicities, shown in the following table, are single numbers or ranges of numbers. In our example, there can be only one User for each Order, but a User can have any number of Orders.
Multiplicities
0..1 0..* or * 1 1..*
Meaning
Zero or one instance; the notation n . . m indicates n to m instances No limit on the number of instances (including none) Exactly one instance At least one instance
Every class diagram has classes, associations, and multiplicities. Navigability and roles are optional items placed in a diagram to provide clarity. The class notation is a three-piece rectangle with the class name, attributes, and operations. Attributes and operations can be labeled according to access and scope. It is preferable that you name classes as singular nouns, such as User instead of Users. Static members are underlined, and Instance members are not. The operations follow this form: <access specifier> <name> ( <parameter list>) : <return type>. The parameter list shows each parameter type preceded by a colon. Access specifiers, shown in the following, appear in front of each member.
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