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% java NameThreadTwo thread is main
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That s right, the main thread already has a name main. (Once again, what are the odds ) Figure 9-1 shows the process of starting a thread.
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Enough playing around here; let s actually get multiple threads going. The following code creates a single Runnable instance, and three Thread instances. All three Thread instances get the same Runnable instance, and each thread is given a unique name. Finally, all three threads are started by invoking start() on the Thread instances.
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class NameRunnable implements Runnable { public void run() { for (int x = 1; x < 4; x++) { System.out.println("Run by " + Thread.currentThread().getName()); } }
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9: Threads
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} public class ManyNames { public static void main (String [] args) { NameRunnable nr = new NameRunnable(); // Make one Runnable Thread one = new Thread(nr); one.setName("Fred"); Thread two = new Thread(nr); two.setName("Lucy"); Thread three = new Thread(nr); three.setName("Ricky"); one.start(); two.start(); three.start(); } }
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FIGURE 9-1
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Defining, Instantiating, and Starting Threads (Exam Objective 7.1)
Running this code produces the following:
% java Run by Run by Run by Run by Run by Run by Run by Run by Run by ManyNames Fred Fred Fred Lucy Lucy Lucy Ricky Ricky Ricky
Well, at least that s what it prints on one machine the one we used for this particular example. (OK, if you insist we ll tell you it s a Macintosh G4 Titanium running OSX. Yes Virginia, there is UNIX on the Mac.) But the behavior you see above is not guaranteed. This is so crucial that you need to stop right now, take a deep breath, and repeat after me, The behavior is not guaranteed. You need to know, for your future as a Java programmer as well as for the exam, that there is nothing in the Java specification that says threads will start running in the order in which they were started (in other words, the order in which start() was invoked on each thread). And there is no guarantee that once a thread starts executing, it will keep executing until it s done. Or that a loop will complete before another thread begins. No siree Bob. Nothing is guaranteed in the preceding code except this: Each thread will start, and each thread will run to completion. But how that happens is not just JVM dependent; it is also runtime dependent. In fact, just for fun we bumped up the loop code so that each run() method ran the loop 300 times rather than 3, and eventually we did start to see some wobbling:
public void run() { for (int x = 0; x < 300; x++) { System.out.println("Run by " + Thread.currentThread().getName()); } }
Running the preceding code, with each thread executing its run loop 300 times, started out fine but then became nonlinear. Here s just a snip from the command-line
9: Threads
output of running that code. To make it easier to distinguish each thread, I put Fred s output in italics and Lucy s in bold, and left Ricky s alone:
Run Run Run Run Run Run Run Run Run Run Run Run Run Run Run Run Run Run Run Run ... by by by by by by by by by by by by by by by by by by by by it Fred Fred Fred Fred Fred Fred Fred Fred Fred Fred Lucy Ricky Fred Ricky Fred Ricky Fred Ricky Fred Ricky continues on ...
Notice that Fred (who was started first) is humming along just fine for a while and then suddenly Lucy (started second) jumps in but only runs once! She does finish later, of course, but not until after Fred and Ricky swap in and out with no clear pattern. The rest of the output also shows Lucy and Ricky swapping for a while, and then finally Lucy finishes with a long sequence of output. So even though Ricky was started third, he actually completed second. And if we run it again, we ll get a different result. Why Because its up to the scheduler, and we don t control the scheduler! Which brings up another key point to remember: Just because a series of threads are started in a particular order doesn t mean they ll run in that order. For any group of started threads, order is not guaranteed by the scheduler. And duration is not guaranteed. You don t know, for example, if one thread will run to completion before the others have a chance to get in or whether they ll all take turns nicely, or whether they ll do a combination of both. There is a way, however, to start a thread but tell it not to run until some other thread has finished. You can do this with the join() method, which we ll look at a little later. A thread is done being a thread when its target run() method completes.
Defining, Instantiating, and Starting Threads (Exam Objective 7.1)
When a thread completes its run() method, the thread ceases to be a thread of execution. The stack for that thread dissolves, and the thread is considered dead. Not dead and gone, however, just dead. It s still a Thread object, just not a thread of execution. So if you ve got a reference to a Thread instance, then even when that Thread instance is no longer a thread of execution, you can still call methods on the Thread instance, just like any other Java object. What you can t do, though, is call start() again. Once a thread is dead, it can never be restarted! If you have a reference to a Thread t, and its run() method has finished, you can t say t.start(); you ll get a big fat runtime exception. So far, we ve seen three thread states: new, runnable, and dead. We ll look at more thread states before we re done with this chapter.
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