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12: Clarity and Maintainability
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Reduce the Visibility of Things As Much As Possible
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In general, the more public stuff you expose to the world, the less free you are to make changes later without breaking someone else s code. The less you expose, the more flexibility you have for implementation changes later. And you know there are always changes. So, making variables, methods, and classes as restricted as you can while limiting what you expose to your public interface, you ll be in good shape down the road. Obviously there are other subtle issues about inheritance (as in, what does a subclass get access to ), so there s more to consider here, but in general, be thinking about reducing your exposure (think of it as reducing your liability down the road). This is closely related to reducing the scope of variables.
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Use Overloading Rather Than Logic
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If you ve got a method that needs to behave differently depending on the kind of thing it was actually handed, consider overloading it. Any time you see if or switch blocks testing the type of an argument, you should probably start thinking about overloading the method. And while you re at it
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If you have a ton of arguments coming into a method, perhaps you need to encapsulate the stuff you need in that method into a class of its own type.
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Don t Invoke Potentially Overridable Methods from a Constructor
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You already know that you can t access any nonstatic things prior to your superconstructor running, but keep in mind that even after an object s superconstructor has completed, the object is still in an incomplete state until after its constructor has finished. Polymorphism still works in a constructor. So if B extends A, and A calls a method in its constructor that B has overridden, well, guess what happens when somebody makes an instance of B. You got it. The B constructor invokes its superconstructor (A s constructor). But inside the A constructor it invokes one of its own methods, but B has overridden that method. B s method runs! In other words, an object can have one of its methods invoked even before its constructor has completed! So while B isn t even a fully formed object, it can still be running code and even accessing its own instance variables. This is a problem because its instance variables have not yet been initialized to
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anything other than default values, even if they re given explicit values when they re declared. Yikes! So don t do it. If it s a final or private instance method, then you re safe since you know it ll never be overridden.
Code to Interfaces
Polymorphism, polymorphism, polymorphism. Use polymorphic arguments, return types, and variables whenever possible (in other words, declare a variable, return type, or argument as an interface type rather than a specific class type). Using an interface as the type lets you expose only the definition of what your code can do, and leaves the implementation flexible and extensible. And maintainable. And all the other good OO things-that-end-with-ble. But if you can t
Use Abstract Classes When You Need Functionality to Be Inherited
If you really must have implementation code and/or instance variables, then use an abstract class and use that class as the declared polymorphic variable, argument, and return type.
Make Objects You re Finished with Eligible for Garbage Collection
You already know how to do this. Either explicitly set the reference variable to null when you have no more use of the object, or reassign a different object to that reference variable (thus abandoning the object originally referenced by it). At the same time
Don t Make More Objects Than You Need To
Just because there s a garbage collector doesn t mean you won t have memory issues. If you keep too many objects around on the heap, ineligible for garbage collection (but you won t, having read the preceding point), then you can still run out of memory. More likely, though, is just the problem that your performance might be slightly degraded by the overhead of both making all those objects and then having the garbage collector reclaim them. Don t do anything to alter your design just to shave a few objects, but pay attention in your implementation code. In some cases, you might be able to simply reuse an existing object by resetting its state.
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