visual basic barcode program Frog f = new Frog(); int frogs = f.getFrogCount; // Access static method getFrogCount using f in Java

Draw PDF-417 2d barcode in Java Frog f = new Frog(); int frogs = f.getFrogCount; // Access static method getFrogCount using f

Frog f = new Frog(); int frogs = f.getFrogCount; // Access static method getFrogCount using f
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In the preceding code, we instantiate a Frog, assign the new Frog object to the reference variable f, and then use the f reference to invoke a static method! But even though we are using a specific Frog instance to access the static method, the rules haven t changed. This is merely a syntax trick to let you use an object reference variable (but not the object it refers to) to get to a static method or variable, but the static member is still unaware of the particular instance used to invoke the static member. In the Frog example, the compiler knows that the reference variable f is of type Frog, and so the Frog class static method is run with no awareness or concern for the Frog instance at the other end of the f reference. In other words, the compiler cares only that reference variable f is declared as type Frog. Figure 2-7 illustrates the effects of the static modifier on methods and variables. Another point to remember is that static methods can t be overridden! This doesn t mean they can t be redefined in a subclass, as we ll see a little later when we look at overriding in more detail, but redefining and overriding aren t the same thing. Things you can mark as static:
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Methods Variables Top-level nested classes (we ll look at nested classes in 8)
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Things you can t mark as static:
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Constructors (makes no sense; a constructor is used only to create instances) Classes Interfaces Inner classes (unless you want them to be top-level nested classes; we ll explore
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this in 7)
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Inner class methods and instance variables Local variables
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2: Declarations and Access Control
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FIGURE 2-7
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The effects of static on methods and variables
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CERTIFICATION OBJECTIVE
Declaration Rules (Exam Objective 4.1)
Identify correctly constructed source files, package declarations, import statements, class declarations (of all forms, including nested classes), interface declarations, method declarations (including the main() method that is used to start execution of a class), variable declarations, and identifiers. The previous objective, 1.2, covered the fundamentals of declarations including modifiers applied to classes, methods, and variables. In this objective, we ll look at how those fundamentals must be applied in a few specific situations. We re not covering all of Objective 4.1 in this section, however. Inner classes won t be discussed here because they re already in 8, the chapter on inner classes (what are the
Declaration Rules (Exam Objective 4.1)
odds ), and we ll hold off on interfaces until we get to Objective 4.2, the section immediately following this one. We promise that this section will be much shorter than the previous one. We promise that we ll introduce very little new information. We promise you ll win friends and influence people with your declaration prowess. We promise to stop making promises.
Source Files, Package Declarations, and Import Statements
It s been awhile since we looked at source declaration rules (about 30+ pages ago), so let s do a quick review of the rules again:
There can be only one public class per source code file. The name of the file must match the name of the public class. If the class is part of a package, the package statement must be the first line
in the source code file.
Import and package statements apply to all classes within a source code file. If there are import statements, they must go between the package statement
and the class declaration. If there isn t a package statement, the import statement(s) must be the first line(s) in the source code file. If there are no package or import statements, the class declaration must be the first line in the source code file. (Comments don t count; they can appear anywhere in the source code file.)
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