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Comparison Operators
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Comparison operators always result in a boolean (true or false) value. This boolean value is most often used in an if test, as follows,
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int x = 8; if (x < 9) { // do something }
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but the resulting value can also be assigned directly to a boolean primitive:
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class CompareTest { public static void main(String [] args) { boolean b = 100 > 99; System.out.println("The value of b is " + b); } }
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You have four comparison operators that can be used to compare any combination of integers, floating-point numbers, or characters:
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> greater than >= greater than or equal to < less than <= less than or equal to
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3: Operators and Assignments
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Let s look at some legal comparisons:
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class GuessAnimal { public static void main(String [] args) { String animal = "unknown"; int weight = 700; char sex = 'm'; double colorWaveLength = 1.630; if (weight >= 500) animal = "elephant"; if (colorWaveLength > 1.621) animal = "gray " + animal; if (sex <= 'f') animal = "female " + animal; System.out.println("The animal is a " + animal); } }
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In the preceding code, we are using a comparison between characters. It s also legal to compare a character primitive with any number, as the code shows (though it isn t great programming style). Running the preceding class will output the following:
%java GuessAnimal The animal is a gray elephant
We mentioned that characters can be used in comparison operators. When comparing a character with a character, or a character with a number, Java will take the ASCII or Unicode value of the character as the numerical value, and compare the numbers.
instanceof Comparison
The instanceof operator is used for object reference variables only, and you can use it to check whether an object is of a particular type. By type, we mean class or interface type in other words, if the object referred to by the variable on the left side of the operator passes the IS-A test for the class or interface type on the right side ( 5 covers IS-A relationships in detail). Look at the following example:
public static void main (String [] args) { String s = new String("foo"); if (s instanceof String) { System.out.print("s is a String"); } }
Java Operators (Exam Objective 5.1)
Even if the object being tested is not an actual instantiation of the class type on the right side of the operator, instanceof will still return true if the object being compared is assignment compatible with the type on the right. The following example demonstrates testing an object using instanceof, to see if it s an instance of one of its superclasses:
class A { } class B extends A { } public static void main (String [] args) { B b = new B(); if (b instanceof A) { System.out.print("b is an A"); } }
The preceding code shows that b is an a. So you can test an object reference against its own class type, or any of its superclasses. This means that any object reference will evaluate to true if you use the instanceof operator against type Object, as follows,
B b = new B(); if (b instanceof Object) { System.out.print("b is definitely an Object"); }
which prints
b is definitely an Object
You can use the instanceof operator on interface types as well:
interface Foo { } class Bar implements Foo { } class TestBar { public static void main (String [] args) { Bar b = new Bar() if ( b instanceof Bar) { System.out.println("b is a Bar"); } if (b instanceof Foo) { System.out.println("b is a Foo"); } } }
3: Operators and Assignments
Running the TestBar class proves that the Bar object referenced by b is both a Bar and a Foo:
b is a Bar b is a Foo
Look for instanceof questions that test whether an object is an instance of an interface, when the object s class implements indirectly. An indirect implementation occurs when one of an object s superclasses implements an interface, but the actual class of the instance does not for example,
interface Foo { } class A implements Foo { } class B extends A { }
Using the definitions above, if we instantiate an A and a B as follows,
A a = new A(); B b = new B();
the following are true:
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