visual basic barcode program 3: Operators and Assignments in Java

Draw PDF 417 in Java 3: Operators and Assignments

3: Operators and Assignments
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Dividing a floating-point number by zero will not result in an
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ArithmeticException, and the universe will remain intact.
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Using the remainder operator on floating-point numbers, where the right
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operand is zero, will not result in an ArithmeticException.
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String Concatenation Operator
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The plus sign can also be used to concatenate two strings together, as we saw earlier (and we ll definitely see again):
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String animal = "Grey " + "elephant";
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String concatenation gets interesting when you combine numbers with Strings. Check out the following:
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String a = "String"; int b = 3; int c = 7; System.out.println(a + b + c);
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Will the + operator act as a plus sign when adding the int variables b + c Or will the + operator treat 3 and 7 as characters, and concatenate them individually Will the result be String10 or String37 OK, you ve had long enough to think about it. The result is
String37
The int values were simply treated as characters and glued on to the right side of the string. So we could read the previous code as: Start with String a, String , and add the character 3 (the value of b) to it, to produce a new string String3 , and then add the character 7 (the value of c) to that, to produce a new string String37 , then print it out. However, if you put parentheses around the two int variables, as follows,
System.out.println(a + (b + c));
you ll get
String10
Using parentheses causes the (b + c) to evaluate first, so the + operator functions as the addition operator, given that both operands are int values. The key point here
Java Operators (Exam Objective 5.1)
is that the left-hand operand is not a String. If it were, then the + operator would perform String concatenation. The previous code can be read as: Add the values of b + c together, then take the sum and convert it to a String and concatenate it with the String from variable a. The rule to remember is If either operand is a String, the + operator becomes a String concatenation operator. If both operands are numbers, the + operator is the addition operator. You ll find that sometimes you might have trouble deciding whether, say, the left hand operator is a String or not. On the exam, don t expect it to always be obvious. (Actually, now that we think about it, don t expect it ever to be obvious.) Look at the following code:
System.out.println(x.foo() + 7);
You can t know how the + operator is being used until you find out what the foo() method returns! If foo() returns a String, then 7 is concatenated to the returned String. But if foo() returns a number, then the + operator is used to add 7 to the return value of foo().
If you don t understand how String concatenation works, especially within a print statement, you could actually fail the exam even if you know the rest of the answer to the question! Because so many questions ask, What is the result , you need to know not only the result of the code running, but also how that result is printed. Although there will be at least a half-dozen questions directly testing your String knowledge, String concatenation shows up in other questions on virtually every objective, and if you get the concatenation wrong, you ll miss that question regardless of your ability to work out the rest of the code. Experiment! For example, you might see a line such as
int b = 2; int c = 3; System.out.println( + b + c);
which prints
but if the print statement changes to
System.out.println(b + c);
then the result becomes
3: Operators and Assignments
Increment and Decrement
Java has two operators that will increment or decrement a variable by exactly one. These operators are composed of either two plus signs (++) or two minus signs (--):
++ increment (prefix and postfix) -- decrement (prefix and postfix)
The operator is placed either before (prefix) or after (postfix) a variable to change the value. Whether the operator comes before or after the operand can change the outcome of an expression. Examine the following:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. class MathTest { static int players = 0; public static void main (String [] args) { System.out.println("players online: " + players++); System.out.println("The value of players is " + players); System.out.println("The value of players is now " + ++players); } }
Notice that in the fourth line of the program the increment operator is after the variable players. That means we re using the postfix increment operator, which causes the variable players to be incremented by one but only after the value of players is used in the expression. When we run this program, it outputs the following:
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