visual basic barcode program %java MathTest players online: 0 The value of players is 1 The value of players is now 2 in Java

Creating PDF-417 2d barcode in Java %java MathTest players online: 0 The value of players is 1 The value of players is now 2

%java MathTest players online: 0 The value of players is 1 The value of players is now 2
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Notice that when the variable is written to the screen, at first it says the value is 0. Because we used the postfix increment operator, the increment doesn t happen until after the players variable is used in the print statement. Get it The post in postfix means after. The next line, line 5, doesn t increment players; it just outputs it to the screen, so the newly incremented value displayed is 1. Line 6 applies the prefix operator to players, which means the increment happens before the value of the variable is used (pre means before). So the output is 2. Expect to see questions mixing the increment and decrement operators with other operators, as in the following example:
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int x = 2; int y = 3;
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Java Operators (Exam Objective 5.1)
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if ((y == x++) | (x < ++y)) { System.out.println("x = " + x + " y = " + y); }
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The preceding code prints
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x = 3 y = 4
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You can read the code as If 3 is equal to 2 OR 3 < 4 The first expression compares x and y, and the result is false, because the increment on x doesn t happen until after the == test is made. Next, we increment x, so now x is 3. Then we check to see if x is less than y, but we increment y before comparing it with x ! So the second logical test is (3 < 4). The result is true, so the print statement runs.
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Look out for questions that use the increment or decrement operators on a final variable. Because final variables can t be changed, the increment and decrement operators can t be used with them, and any attempt to do so will result in a compiler error. The following code won t compile,
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final int x = 5; int y = x++;
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and produces the error
Test.java:4: cannot assign a value to final variable x int y = x++; ^
You can expect a violation like this to be buried deep in a complex piece of code. If you spot it, you know the code won t compile and you can move on without working through the rest of the code (unless, of course, you re into the sport of Extreme Test-Taking, and you want the running-out-of-time challenge).
As with String concatenation, the increment and decrement operators are used throughout the exam, even on questions that aren t trying to test your knowledge of how those operators work. You might see them in questions on for loops, exceptions, even threads. Be ready.
3: Operators and Assignments
Shift Operators
The following are shift operators:
>> right shift << left shift >>> unsigned right shift (also called zero-filled right shift)
The more obscure the topic, the more likely it will appear on the exam. Operators such as +, -, *, and / aren t likely to be tested for on the exam because they re so commonly used. Shift operators are rarely used by most programmers; therefore, they will most definitely be on the exam.
The shift operators shift the bits of a number to the right or left, producing a new number. Shift operators are used on integral numbers only (not floating-point numbers). To determine the result of a shift, you have to convert the number into binary. Let s look at an example of a bit shift:
8 >> 1;
First, we must convert this number to a binary representation:
0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1000
An int is a 32-bit integer, so all 32 bits must be displayed. If we apply a bit shift of one to the right, using the >> operator, the new bit number is
0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0100
Notice how the 1 bit moved over to the right, one place. We can now convert this back to a decimal number (base 10) to get 4. The following code shows the complete example:
class BitShift { public static void main(String [] args) { int x = 8; System.out.println("Before shift x equals " + x); x = x >> 1; System.out.println("After shift x equals " + x); } }
Java Operators (Exam Objective 5.1)
When we compile and run this program we get the following output:
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