visual basic barcode program EXERCISE 3-2 Casting Primitives in Java

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EXERCISE 3-2 Casting Primitives
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1. Declare a float variable: float f = 234.56F; 2. Assign the float to a short: short s = (short)f;
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Logical Operators (Exam Objective 5.3)
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In an expression involving the operators &, |, &&, and ||, and variables of known values, state which operands are evaluated and the value of the expression. There are four logical operators. Two you ve seen before; the & and | bitwise operators can be used in boolean expressions. The other two we haven t yet covered, and are known as the short-circuit logical operators:
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&& short-circuit AND || short-circuit OR
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3: Operators and Assignments
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Short-Circuit Logical Operators
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The && operator is similar to the & operator, except it evaluates only boolean values and can t be used as a bitwise operator. Remember, for an AND expression to be true, both operands must be true for example,
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if ((2 < 3) && (3 < 4)) { }
The preceding expression evaluates to true only because both operand one (2 < 3) and operand two (3 < 4) evaluate to true. The short-circuit feature of the && operator is that it doesn t waste its time on pointless evaluations. A short-circuit && evaluates the left side of the operation first (operand one), and if operand one resolves to false, the && operator doesn t bother looking at the right side of the equation (operand two). The operator already knows that the complete expression can t possibly be true, since one operand has already proven to be false.
class Logical { public static void main(String [] args) { boolean b = true && false; System.out.println("boolean b = " + b); } }
When we run the preceding code, we get
C:\Java Projects\BookTest>java Logical boolean b = false
The || operator is similar to the && operator, except that it evaluates the left side first, this time looking for true. If the first operand in an OR operation is true, the result will be true, so the short-circuit || doesn t waste time looking at the right side of the equation. If the first operand is false, however, the short-circuit || has to evaluate the second operand to see if the result of the OR operation will be true or false. Pay close attention to the following example; you ll see quite a few questions like this on the exam:
1. class TestOR { 2. public static void main (String [] args) { 3. if ((isItSmall(3)) || (isItSmall(7))) { 4. System.out.println("Result is true");
Logical Operators (Exam Objective 5.3)
5. } 6. if ((isItSmall(6)) || (isItSmall(9))) { 7. System.out.println("Result is true"); 8. } 9. } 10. 11. public static boolean isItSmall(int i) { 12. if (i < 5) { 13. System.out.println("i less than 5"); 14. return true; 15. } else { 16. System.out.println("i greater than 5"); 17. return false; 18. } 19. } 20. }
What is the result
[localhost:~/javatests] kathy% java TestOR i less than 5 Result is true i greater than 5 i greater than 5
Here s what happened when the main() method ran:
1. When we hit line 3, the first operand in the || expression (in other words, the left side of the || operation) is evaluated. 2. The isItSmall(3) method is invoked and prints i less than 5 . 3. The isItSmall(3) method returns true. 4. Because the first operand in the || expression on line 3 is true, the || operator doesn t bother evaluating the second operand. So we never see the i greater than 5 that would have printed had the second operand been evaluated (which would have invoked isItSmall(7)). 5. Line 6 is now evaluated, beginning with the first operand in the || expression on line 6. 6. The isItSmall(6) method is invoked and prints i greater than 5 . 7. The isItSmall(6) method returns false.
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