visual basic barcode program 3: Operators and Assignments in Java

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3: Operators and Assignments
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Here are some of the key points from each certification objective in 3.
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Java Operators (Sun Objective 5.1) The result of performing most operations is either a boolean or a
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numeric value.
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Variables are just bit holders with a designated type. A reference variable s bits represent a way to get to an object. An unassigned reference variable s bits represent null. There are 12 assignment operators: =, *=, /=, %=, +=, -=, <<=, >>=, >>>=,
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&=, ^=, |=.
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Numeric expressions always result in at least an int-sized result never
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Floating-point numbers are implicitly doubles (64 bits). Narrowing a primitive truncates the high-order bits. Two s complement means: flip all the bits, then add 1. Compound assignments (e.g. +=) perform an automatic cast. Reference Variables When creating a new object, e.g., Button b = new Button();, three things
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happen:
Make a reference variable named b, of type Button Create a new Button object Refer the reference variable b to the Button object Reference variables can refer to subclasses of the declared type but not
superclasses.
String Objects and References String objects are immutable, cannot be changed.
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When you use a String reference variable to modify a String: A new string is created (the old string is immutable). The reference variable refers to the new string. Comparison Operators Comparison operators always result in a boolean value (true or false). There are four comparison operators: >, >=, <, <=. When comparing characters, Java uses the ASCII or Unicode value of the
number as the numerical value.
instanceof Operator instanceof is for reference variables only, and checks for whether this
object is of a particular type.
The instanceof operator can be used only to test objects (or null )
against class types that are in the same class hierarchy.
For interfaces, an object is of a type if any of its superclasses implement the
interface in question.
Equality Operators Four types of things can be tested: numbers, characters, booleans, reference
variables.
There are two equality operators: == and !=. Arithmetic Operators There are four primary operators: add, subtract, multiply, and divide. The remainder operator returns the remainder of a division. When floating-point numbers are divided by zero, they return positive or
negative infinity.
When the remainder operator performs a floating-point divide by zero, it will
not cause a runtime exception.
3: Operators and Assignments
When integers are divided by zero, a runtime ArithmeticException is thrown. When the remainder operator performs an integer divide by zero, a runtime
ArithmeticException is thrown.
String Concatenation Operator If either operand is a String, the + operator concatenates the operands. If both operands are numeric, the + operator adds the operands. Increment/Decrement Operators Prefix operator runs before the value is used in the expression. Postfix operator runs after the value is used in the expression. In any expression, both operands are fully evaluated before the operator is
applied.
Final variables cannot be incremented or decremented. Shift Operators There are three shift operators: >>, <<, >>>; the first two are signed, the last
is unsigned.
Shift operators can only be used on integer types. Shift operators can work on all bases of integers (octal, decimal, or
hexadecimal).
Bits are filled as follows: << fills the right bits with zeros. >> fills the left bits with whatever value the original sign bit (leftmost
bit) held.
>>> fills the left bits with zeros (negative numbers will become positive). All bit shift operands are promoted to at least an int. For int shifts > 32 or long shifts > 64, the actual shift value is the remainder
of the right operand / divided by 32 or 64, respectively.
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Bitwise Operators There are three bitwise operators &, ^, | and a bitwise complement,
operator ~.
The & operator sets a bit to 1 if both operand s bits are set to 1. The ^ operator sets a bit to 1 if exactly one operand s bit is set to 1. The | operator sets a bit to 1 if at least one operand s bit is set to 1. The ~ operator reverses the value of every bit in the single operand. Ternary (Conditional Operator) Returns one of two values based on whether a boolean expression is true
or false.
The value after the is the if true return . The value after the : is the if false return . Casting Implicit casting (you write no code) happens when a widening conversion
occurs.
Explicit casting (you write the cast) happens when a narrowing conversion
occurs.
Casting a floating point to an integer type causes all digits to the right of the
decimal point to be lost (truncated).
Narrowing conversions can cause loss of data the most significant bits
(leftmost) can be lost.
Logical Operators (Sun Objective 5.3) There are four logical operators: &, |, &&, ||. Logical operators work with two expressions that must resolve to boolean
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