visual basic barcode program 4: Flow Control, Exceptions, and Assertions in Java

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4: Flow Control, Exceptions, and Assertions
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Running the preceding code prints
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The rule to remember is default works just like any other case for fall-through!
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EXERCISE 4-1 Creating a switch-case Statement
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Try creating a switch-case statement using a char value as the case. Include a default behavior if none of the char values match.
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1. Make sure a char variable is declared before the switch statement. 2. Each case statement should be followed by a break. 3. The default value can be located at the end, middle, or top.
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CERTIFICATION OBJECTIVE
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Writing Code Using Loops (Exam Objective 2.2)
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Write code using all forms of loops including labeled and unlabeled, use of break and continue, and state the values taken by loop counter variables during and after loop execution. Java loops come in three flavors: while, do-while, and for. All three let you repeat a block of code as long as some condition is true, or for a specific number of iterations. You re probably familiar with loops from other languages, so even if you re somewhat new to Java, these won t be a problem to learn.
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Writing Code Using Loops (Exam Objective 2.2)
Using while Loops
The while loop is good for scenarios where you don t know how many times block or statement should repeat, but you want it to continue as long as some condition is true. A while statement looks like this:
int x = 2; while(x == 2) { System.out.println(x); ++x; }
In this case, as in all loops, the expression (test) must evaluate to a boolean result. Any variables used in the expression of a while loop must be declared before the expression is evaluated. In other words, you can t say
while (int x = 2) { }
Then again, why would you Instead of testing the variable, you d be declaring and initializing it, so it would always have the exact same value. Not much of a test condition! The body of the while loop will only execute if the condition results in a true value. Once inside the loop, the loop body will repeat until the condition is no longer met and evaluates to false. In the previous example, program control will enter the loop body because x is equal to 2. However, x is incremented in the loop, so when the condition is checked again it will evaluate to false and exit the loop. The key point to remember about a while loop is that it might not ever run. If the test expression is false the first time the while expression is checked, the loop body will be skipped and the program will begin executing at the first statement after the while loop. Look at the following example:
int x = 8; while (x > 8) { System.out.println("in the loop"); x = 10; } System.out.println("past the loop");
Running this code produces
past the loop
4: Flow Control, Exceptions, and Assertions
Although the test variable x is incremented within the while loop body, the program will never see it. This is in contrast to the do-while loop that executes the loop body once, and then does the first test.
Using do-while Loops
The following shows a do-while statement in action:
do { System.out.println("Inside loop"); } while(false);
The System.out.println() statement will print once, even though the expression evaluates to false. The do-while loop will always run the code in the loop body at least once. Be sure to note the use of the semicolon at the end of the while expression.
As with if tests, look for while loops (and the while test in a do-while loop) with an expression that does not resolve to a boolean. Take a look at the following examples of legal and illegal while expressions:
int x while while while while = 1; (x) { } // Won t compile; x is not a boolean (x = 5) { } // Won t compile; resolves to 5 (result of assignment) (x == 5) { } // Legal, equality test (true) { } // Legal
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