visual basic barcode program 4: Flow Control, Exceptions, and Assertions in Java

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4: Flow Control, Exceptions, and Assertions
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The question is, is this an endless loop The answer is no. When the continue statement is hit, the iteration expression still runs! It runs just as though the current iteration ended in the natural way. So in the preceding example, i will still increment before the condition (i < 10) is checked again. Most of the time, a continue is used within an if test as follows:
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for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) { System.out.println("Inside loop"); if (foo.doStuff() == 5) { continue; } // more loop code, that won't be reached when the above if //test is true }
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Unlabeled Statements
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Both the break statement and the continue statement can be unlabeled or labeled. Although it s far more common to use break and continue unlabeled, the exam expects you to know how labeled break and continue work. As stated before, a break statement (unlabeled) will exit out of the innermost looping construct and proceed with the next line of code beyond the loop block. The following example demonstrates a break statement:
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boolean problem = true; while (true) { if (problem) { System.out.println("There was a problem"); break; } } //next line of code
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In the previous example, the break statement is unlabeled. The following is another example of an unlabeled continue statement:
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while (!EOF) { //read a field from a file if (there was a problem) { //move to the next field in the file continue; } }
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In this example, there is a file being read from one field at a time. When an error is encountered, the program moves to the next field in the file and uses the continue statement to go back into the loop (if it is not at the end of the file) and keeps reading the various fields. If the break command were used instead, the code would stop reading the file once the error occurred and move on to the next line of code. The continue statement gives you a way to say, This particular iteration of the loop needs to stop, but not the whole loop itself. I just don t want the rest of the code in this iteration to finish, so do the iteration expression and then start over with the test, and don t worry about what was below the continue statement.
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Labeled Statements
You need to understand the difference between labeled and unlabeled break and continue. The labeled varieties are needed only in situations where you have a nested loop, and need to indicate which of the nested loops you want to break from, or from which of the nested loops you want to continue with the next iteration. A break statement will exit out of the labeled loop, as opposed to the innermost loop, if the break keyword is combined with a label. An example of what a label looks like is in the following code:
foo: for (int x = 3; x < 20; x++) { while(y > 7) { y--; } }
The label must adhere to the rules for a valid variable name and should adhere to the Java naming convention. The syntax for the use of a label name in conjunction with a break statement is the break keyword, then the label name, followed by a semicolon. A more complete example of the use of a labeled break statement is as follows:
outer: for(int i=0; i<10; i++) { while (y > 7) { System.out.println("Hello"); break outer; } // end of inner for loop System.out.println("Outer loop."); // Won't print
4: Flow Control, Exceptions, and Assertions
} // end of outer for loop System.out.println("Good-Bye");
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