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A stack can be represented as growing upward (although it can also be visualized as growing downward). As you can see, the last method called is at the top of the stack, while the first calling method is at the bottom. If you could print out the state of the stack at any given time, you would produce a stack trace. The method at the very top of the stack trace would be the method you were currently executing. If we move back down the call stack, we re moving from the current method to the previously called method. Figure 4-1 illustrates a way to think about how the call stack in Java works. Now let s examine what happens to ducked exceptions. Imagine a building, say, five stories high, and at each floor there is a deck or balcony. Now imagine that on each deck, one person is standing holding a baseball mitt. Exceptions are like balls dropped from person to person, starting from the roof. An exception is first thrown
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FIGURE 4-1
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The Java method call stack
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4: Flow Control, Exceptions, and Assertions
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from the top of the stack (in other words, the person on the roof ), and if it isn t caught by the same person who threw it (the person on the roof ), it drops down the call stack to the previous method, which is the person standing on the deck one floor down. If not caught there, by the person one floor down, the exception/ball again drops down to the previous method (person on the next floor down), and so on until they are caught or until they reach the very bottom of the call stack. This is called exception propagation. If they reach the bottom of the call stack, it s like reaching the bottom of a very long drop; the ball explodes, and so does your program. An exception that s never caught will cause your application to stop running. A description (if one is available) of the exception will be displayed, and the call stack will be dumped. This helps you debug your application by telling you what exception was thrown, from what method it was thrown, and what the stack looked like at the time.
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You can keep throwing an exception down through the methods on the stack. But what about when you get to the main() method at the bottom You can throw the exception out of main() as well. This results in the Java virtual machine (JVM) halting, and the stack trace will be printed to the output. The following code throws an exception,
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class TestEx { public static void main (String [] args) { doStuff(); } static void doStuff() { doMoreStuff(); } static void doMoreStuff() { int x = 5/0; } } // Can t divide by zero! ArithmeticException is thrown here
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which prints out the stack trace,
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%java TestEx Exception in thread main java.lang.ArithmeticException: / by zero at TestEx.doMoreStuff(TestEx.java:10) at TestEx.doStuff(TestEx.java:7) at TestEx.main(TestEx.java:3)
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Handling Exceptions (Exam Objectives 2.3 and 2.4)
EXERCISE 4-3 Propagating and Catching an Exception
So far you have only seen exceptions displayed in this chapter with pseudocode. In this exercise we attempt to create two methods that deal with exceptions. One of the methods is the main() method, which will call another method. If an exception is thrown in the other method, it must deal with it. A finally statement will be included to indicate it is all done. The method it will call will be named reverse(), and it will reverse the order of the characters in the string. If the string contains no characters, it will propagate an exception up to the main() method.
1. Create an enclosing class called Propagate and a main() method, which will remain empty for now. 2. Create a method called reverse(). It takes an argument of a string and returns a String. 3. Check if the String has a length of 0 by using the length() method. If the length is 0, it will throw a new exception. 4. Now let s include the code to reverse the order of the String. Because this isn t the main topic of this chapter, the reversal code has been provided, but feel free to try it on your own.
String reverseStr = ""; for(int i=s.length()-1;i>=0;--i) { reverseStr += s.charAt(i); } return reverseStr;
5. Now in the main() method we will attempt to call this method and deal with any potential exceptions. Additionally, we will include a finally statement that tells us it has finished.
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