barcode in vb.net 2005 The output lter causes a double pole at F= 1 2 L1 C1 = 1073 Hz in Software

Encoder Quick Response Code in Software The output lter causes a double pole at F= 1 2 L1 C1 = 1073 Hz

The output lter causes a double pole at F= 1 2 L1 C1 = 1073 Hz
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One of these two poles is canceled by R4 and C3, which has a corner frequency of 1 F= = 1064 Hz 2 R4 C3
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A third pole is caused by capacitor C2, which is used to provide maximum DC gain for regulation purposes. R5 provides a zero with C2 at a frequency of F= 1 = 338 Hz 2 R5 C2
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The zero is below the frequency of the output lter pole in order to improve phase margin. If the output lter has a lower Q (it normally does not), then the zero could be at a frequency that is closer to the output lter pole. An additional zero exists, because of the output lter capacitor ESR at F= 1 = 14, 475 Hz 2 R1 C7
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This zero is canceled by R6 and C3, which has a corner frequency of F= 1 = 15, 611 Hz 2 R6 C3
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The DC gain of the modulator is approximated by Gain = Vin (T T0 ) = 3.6 = 11.1 dB ( EP E0 ) T
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The regulator is con gured as an open-loop model in order to measure the Bode response. Inductor L2 is set to 1 H in order to effectively open the loop. The plots in Figs. 4.4, 4.5, and 4.6 show the modulator gain (VM(10)/VM(9) and VP(10) - VP(9), where VM is the magnitude and VP is the phase), the error ampli er gain (V(9)), and the overall loop gain (V(10)), respectively. In the next simulation, the loop is closed in order to simulate the audio susceptibility and load transient characteristics of the converter. The modi ed schematic is shown in Fig. 4.7. Note that L2 has been removed.
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1524BCK: TO SIMULATE THE AUDIO SUSCEPTIBILITY AND THE LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONVERTER .OP .TRAN 1U 5M 0 5U .AC DEC 20 100HZ 1MEGHZ .PROBE V(9)=COMP .PRINT AC V(12) VP(12) V(9) VP(9) .PRINT TRAN V(12) X2 2 0 4 1 0 PWM V1 2 0 12 AC 1 R1 3 5 10K
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Buck Topology Converters
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L1 4 12 100U C1 12 10 220U R3 12 0 1 R4 7 12 22K R5 7 8 47K C2 8 9 .01U C3 7 6 6.8N R6 6 12 1.5K R7 10 0 .05 I1 0 12 PULSE 0 1 1U 1U 1U 2.5M 5M X1 7 5 9 1 3 SG1524A Params: T=10U TO=1U TS=.25U EP=3.5 EO=.5 .END
The results of the load transient response and audio susceptibility simulations are shown in Figs. 4.8 and 4.9, respectively. Discontinuous Mode Simulation Although this model is extremely simple to use, it does have one signi cant drawback. The modulator transfer function is valid only for continuous mode operation. The previous example has an inductor ripple current of approximately 200 mA peak-to-peak. This allows the converter to operate at a load current level as low as 100 mA but maintains
x 113 < 11.2
Modulator Gain (wfm1) in dB (Volts)
Modulator Phase (wfm2) in Deg
-150 -140
100K
Frequency in Hz
x = 12.6 y = 15.8M
Graph of the modulator gain and phase. The waveform division and subtraction to create the waveforms was performed in IntuScope.
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Error Amp Gain (wfm1) in dB (Volts)
Error Amp Phase (wfm2) in Deg
350 1
2 1K 10K 100K
Frequency in Hz
Graph for the error ampli er gain (Vdb(9)) and phase (VP(9)).
Open Loop Gain (wfm1) in dB (Volts)
Open Loop Phase (wfm2) in Deg
1 x 7.69K < 76.0
> x 279K < -61.7M 2
100K
Frequency in Hz
Graph of the open-loop gain (Vdb(10)) and phase (VP(10)). L2 effectively opens
the loop.
Buck Topology Converters
R4 22K R5 47K
C2 .01U V(9) COMP
V(12) C3 6.8N R6 1.5K V1 12
current pulse
L1 100U
C1 220U
R3 1
Comp
R7 .05 X2 PWM
5V Ref.
Osc.
R1 10K X1 SG1524A
Schematic design for a closed-loop converter. L2 has been removed (see Fig. 4.6).
continuous mode operation. Typical ripple currents will more realistically allow operation from 10% to 100% of the load in continuous mode. This model will not produce accurate results for discontinuous mode operation. The graph in Fig. 4.10 shows the results of a simulation of the previous circuit with a 50-mA load current. A state space model that can simulate continuous and discontinuous mode operation for both current mode and voltage mode converters is included in the AEi Systems Power IC Library for PSpice.
V(9) in Volts
500U
1.50M
2.50M
3.50M
4.50M
Time in Secs
Load transient response V(12) as the result of a current pulse from I1.
Four
Audio Susceptibility in dB (Volts)
100K
Frequency in Hz
Audio susceptibility simulation result from the AC analysis. V(12) is shown.
Open Loop Gain (wfm1) in dB (Volts)
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