qr code generator vb.net Electric Charge and Electric Field in .NET framework

Generation USS Code 128 in .NET framework Electric Charge and Electric Field

CHAPTER 1 Electric Charge and Electric Field
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condition of a body. Therefore, when the switch in Fig. 10 is closed, positive charge ows from body B to body A until each body has an equal de ciency of 55 units of positive charge. There are no problems here, but this section should be read and reread until you have all the facts rmly in mind.*
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Coulomb s Law and the Unit of Charge
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We have learned that two types of electric charge exist, one type being called positive and the other negative. If a body contains equal amounts of both types it is said to be in an electrically neutral condition. If it contains more positive charge than negative charge it is said to be positively charged, or if it contains more negative than positive charge it is said to be a negatively charged body. The amount or quantity of excess electric charge carried by a body is denoted by q or Q, the sign used depending on whether the excess charge is positive or negative. We recall that bodies carrying excess amounts of like charge REPEL each other, while bodies carrying excess amounts of unlike charge ATTRACT each other. What is called an ELECTRIC FIELD always exists in the three-dimensional space surrounding an electric charge or group of electric charges. If the charges are at rest (that is, are stationary or static relative to our frame of reference), they are called electrostatic charges, and the elds produced by such charges at rest are called electrostatic elds. The behavior of charges at rest, that is, electrostatic charges, and the elds produced by them, is the subject of this and the next two sections. The UNIT AMOUNT of electric charge is called the coulomb ( KOO lohm ), in honor of the French physicist Charles Coulomb. Coulomb, who published the results of his experiments in 1785, showed that the FORCE OF ATTRACTION OR REPULSION between two quantities of electric charge, q1 and q2 , is directly proportional to the product of the two charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. This is known as Coulomb s law, which takes the mathematical form F k q1 q2 K r2 1
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where F is the magnitude of the force of attraction or repulsion between the two charges q1 and q2 , and r is the distance between them.{ The meaning of the constants k and K will be explained in the following discussion, but rst let us discuss the meaning of, and the restrictions placed on, eq. (1). In eq. (1), it is assumed that q1 and q2 are point charges, that is, that the charges q1 and q2 are concentrated on bodies whose dimensions are very small compared with the distance r between them. Consider, for instance, the two charged spheres in Fig. 11.
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Fig. 11
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For instance, if the spheres in Fig. 11 are 0.1 inches in diameter and are separated a distance of, say, 10 inches, they would, for all practical purposes, behave as two point charges for which r 10 inches.
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* Also see note 1 in Appendix. { q will always denote electric charge.
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CHAPTER 1 Electric Charge and Electric Field
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You may recall that Newton s third law states that to every force there is an equal but oppositely directed force. Thus the forces acting on the above point charges have equal magnitudes (given by eq. (1)), but point in opposite directions along the straight line drawn through the two charges. This is illustrated in Fig. 12, for the case of two like charges (which repel each other) and two unlike charges (which attract each other). We ve considered force acting to the right to be positive and force acting to the left to be negative.
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Fig. 12
Let s next discuss the meanings of the constants k and K in eq. (1). We begin by pointing out that the value of the force of attraction or repulsion between two charges depends not only on the values of the charges themselves and the distance between them, but also upon the medium that surrounds the charges. For instance, the force action between two charges immersed in say mineral oil (just as an example) is considerably di erent from what it would be if the same two charges were the same distance apart in air. The medium surrounding the charges is called the DIELECTRIC, and the e ect of the dielectric is taken into account, in eq. (1), by means of the dielectric constant K, the value of K depending upon the type of dielectric the charges are immersed in. The dielectric constant K is de ned as the ratio of the force in vacuum to the force in the given dielectric. K is thus a dimensionless constant (the ratio of one force to another force), and is given the arbitrary value K 1 for vacuum (also, K 1 for air dielectric, for all practical purposes). Thus, for vacuum or air dielectric eq. (1) becomes F kq1 q2 =r2 2
Next, the value of k above will depend upon the units that we choose to measure force, distance, and charge. Since we ll use the more practical engineering meter-kilogram-second (mks) system,* force will be measured in newtons, distance in meters, and charge in coulombs. For these units we nd that k is approximately equal to 9 109 , and thus, for mks units, eq. (2) becomes 9 109 q1 q2 3 F r2 where F force in newtons, the qs are electric charges in coulombs, r distance in meters. Let us set q1 q2 1, and r 1, in the above; doing this gives a force F of F 9 109 newtons 1 million tons; approx: Thus, in Fig. 11, if q1 were a positive charge of 1 coulomb and q2 a negative charge of 1 coulomb, and r 1 meter, the force of attraction between the two charges would be approximately 1 million tons. From this, it s apparent that it s impossible, in the real world, to have large separated concentrations of electric charges. Here we emphasize
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