barcode in vb.net 2005 Standing-wave loss in Software

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Standing-wave loss
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At current loops, the loss in the line conductors is exaggerated. At voltage loops, the loss in the line dielectric is increased. At minima, the losses are decreased. But overall, in a mismatched line, the losses are greater than they are in a perfectly matched line.
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318 Power and resonance in ac circuits This loss occurs at heat dissipation. It is true power. Any true power that goes into heating up a transmission line is wasted, because it cannot be dissipated in the load. The additional loss caused by standing waves, over and above the perfectly-matched line loss, is called standing-wave loss. The greater the mismatch, the more severe the standing-wave loss becomes. The more loss a line has to begin with (that is, when it is perfectly matched), the more loss is caused by a given amount of mismatch. Standing-wave loss increases with frequency. It tends to be worst in long lengths of line at VHF, UHF, and microwaves.
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Line overheating
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A severe mismatch between the load and the transmission line can cause another problem: physical destruction of the line! A feed line might be able to handle a kilowatt (1 kW) of power when it is perfectly matched. But if a severe mismatch exists and you try to feed 1 kW into the line, the extra current at the current loops can heat the conductors to the point where the dielectric material melts and the line shorts out. It is also possible for the voltage at the voltage loops to cause arcing between the line conductors. This perforates and/or burns the dielectric, ruining the line. When a line must be used with a mismatch, derating functions are required to determine how much power the line can safely handle. Manufacturers of prefabricated lines can supply you with this information.
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Series resonance
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One of the most important phenomena in ac circuits, especially in radio-frequency engineering, is the property of resonance. You ve already learned that resonance is a condition that occurs when capacitive and inductive reactance cancel each other out. Resonant circuits and devices have a great many different applications in electricity and electronics. Recall that capacitive reactance, XC, and inductive reactance, XL, can sometimes be equal in magnitude. They are always opposite in effect. In any circuit containing an inductance and capacitance, there will be a frequency at which XL XC. This is resonance. Sometimes XL XC at just one frequency; in some special devices it can occur at many frequencies. Generally, if a circuit contains one coil and one capacitor, there will be one resonant frequency. Refer to the schematic diagram of Fig. 17-11. You might recognize this as a series RLC circuit. At some particular frequency, XL XC. This is inevitable, if L and C are finite and nonzero. This is the resonant frequency of the circuit. It is abbreviated fo.
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17-11 A series RLC circuit.
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At fo, the effects of capacitive reactance and inductive reactance cancel out. The result is that the circuit appears as a pure resistance, with a value very close to R. If
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Calculating resonant frequency 319 R 0, that is, the resistor is a short circuit, then the circuit is called a series LC circuit, and the impedance at resonance will be extremely low. The circuit will offer practically no opposition to the flow of alternating current at the frequency fo. This condition is series resonance.
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Parallel resonance
Refer to the circuit diagram of Fig. 17-12. This is a parallel RLC circuit. You remember that, in this case, the resistance R is thought of as a conductance G, with G 1/R. Then the circuit can be called a GLC circuit.
17-12 A parallel RLC circuit.
At some particular frequency fo, the inductive susceptance BL will exactly cancel the capacitive susceptance BC; that is, BL BC. This is inevitable for some frequency fo, as long as the circuit contains finite, nonzero inductance and finite, nonzero capacitance. At the frequency fo, the susceptances cancel each other out, leaving zero susceptance. The admittance through the circuit is then very nearly equal to the conductance, G, of the resistor. If the circuit contains no resistor, but only a coil and capacitor, it is called a parallel LC circuit, and the admittance at resonance will be extremely low. The circuit will offer great opposition to alternating current at fo. Engineers think more often in terms of impedance than in terms of admittance; low admittance translates into high impedance. This condition is parallel resonance.
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