barcode in vb.net 2005 Transformers and impedance matching in Software

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Transformers and impedance matching
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IN ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRONICS, TRANSFORMERS ARE EMPLOYED IN VARIOUS ways . Transformers are used to obtain the right voltage for the operation of a circuit or system. Transformers can match impedances between a circuit and a load, or between two different circuits. Transformers can be used to provide dc isolation between electronic circuits while letting ac pass. Another application is to mate balanced and unbalanced circuits, feed systems, and loads.
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Principle of the transformer
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When two wires are near each other, and one of them carries a fluctuating current, a current will be induced in the other wire. This effect is known as electromagnetic induction. All ac transformers work according to the principle of electromagnetic induction. If the first wire carries sine-wave ac of a certain frequency, then the induced current will be sine-wave ac of the same frequency in the second wire. The closer the two wires are to each other, the greater the induced current will be, for a given current in the first wire. If the wires are wound into coils and placed along a common axis (Fig. 18-1), the induced current will be greater than if the wires are straight and parallel. Even more coupling, or efficiency of induced-current transfer, is obtained if the two coils are wound one atop the other. The first coil is called the primary winding, and the second coil is known as the secondary winding. These are often spoken of as simply the primary and secondary. The induced current creates a voltage across the secondary. In a step-down transformer, the secondary voltage is less than the primary voltage. In a step-up transformer, the secondary voltage is greater than the primary voltage. The primary voltage is abbreviated Epri, and the secondary voltage is abbreviated Esec. Unless otherwise stated, effective (rms) voltages are always specified. The windings of a transformer have inductance because they are coils. The required 327
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328 Transformers and impedance matching inductances of the primary and secondary depend on the frequency of operation, and also on the resistive part of the impedance in the circuit. As the frequency increases, the needed inductance decreases. At high-resistive impedances, more inductance is generally needed than at low-resistive impedances
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18-1 Magnetic flux between two coils of wire.
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Turns ratio
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The turns ratio in a transformer is the ratio of the number of turns in the primary, Tpri, to the number of turns in the secondary, Tsec. This ratio is written Tpri:Tsec or Tpri/Tsec. In a transformer with excellent primary-to-secondary coupling, the following relationship always holds: Epri/Esec = Tpri/Tsec That is, the primary-to-secondary voltage ratio is always equal to the primary-to-secondary turns ratio (Fig. 18-2).
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18-2 Primary and secondary turns and voltages in a transformer. See text for discussion.
Problem 18-1
A transformer has a primary-to-secondary turns ratio of exactly 9:1. The voltage at the primary is 117 V. What is the voltage at the secondary This is a step-down transformer. Simply plug in the numbers in the above equation and solve for Esec:
Transformer cores 329 Epri/Esec 117/Esec 1/Esec Esec Tpri/Tsec 9/1 9 9/117 117/9 13 V
Problem 18-2
A transformer has a primary-to-secondary turns ratio of exactly 1:9. The voltage at the primary is 117 V. What is the voltage at the secondary This is a step-up transformer. Plug in numbers again: 117/Esec Esec/117 Esec This can be rounded off to 1050 V. A step-down transformer always has a primary-to-secondary turns ratio greater than 1, and a step-up transformer has a primary-to-secondary turns ratio less than 1. Sometimes the secondary-to-primary turns ratio is given. This is the reciprocal of the primary-to-secondary turns ratio, written Tsec/Tpri. In a step-down unit, Tsec/Tpri < 1; in a step-up unit, Tsec/Tpri > 1. When you hear someone say that such-and-such a transformer has a certain turns ratio, say 10:1, you need to be sure of which ratio is meant, Tpri/Tsec or Tsec/Tpri! If you get it wrong, you ll have the secondary voltage off by a factor of the square of the turns ratio. You might be thinking of 12 V when the engineer is talking about 1200 V. One way to get rid of doubt is to ask, Step-up or step-down 1/9 9/1 9 9 117
1053 V
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