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18-8 Schematic symbols for autotransformers. At A, air core and at B, ferromagnetic core. The unit at A steps down and the one at B steps up.
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Any transformer used in the 60-Hz utility line, intended to provide a certain rms ac voltage for the operation of electrical circuits, is a power transformer. Power transformers exist in sizes ranging from smaller than a tennis ball to as big as a room.
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The largest transformers are employed right at the place where electricity is generated. Not surprisingly, high-energy power plants have bigger transformers that develop higher voltages than low-energy, local power plants. These transformers must be able to handle not only huge voltages, but large currents as well. Their primaries and secondaries must withstand a product EI of volt-amperes that is equal to the power P ultimately delivered by the transmission line. When electrical energy must be sent over long distances, extremely high voltages are used. This is because, for a given amount of power ultimately dissipated by the loads, the current is lower when the voltage is higher. Lower current translates into reduced loss in the transmission line. Recall the formula P EI, where P is the power in watts, E is the voltage in volts, and I is the current in amperes. If you can make the voltage 10 times larger, for a given power level, then the current is reduced to 1/10 as much. The ohmic losses in the wires are proportional to the square of the current; remember that P I 2R, where P is the power in watts, I is the current in amperes, and R is the resistance in ohms. Engineers can t do much about the wire resistance or the power consumed by the loads, but they can adjust the voltage, and thereby the current. Increasing the voltage 10 times will cut the current to 0.1 its previous value. This will render the I 2R loss (0.1)2 0.01 (1 percent!) as much as before. For this reason, regional power plants have massive transformers capable of generating hundreds of thousands of volts. A few can produce 1,000,000 V rms. A transmission line that carries this much voltage requires gigantic insulators, sometimes several meters long, and tall, sturdy towers.
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Power transformers 335
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Extreme voltage is good for high-tension power transmission, but it s certainly of no use to an average consumer. The wiring in a high-tension system must be done using precautions to prevent arcing (sparking) and short circuits. Personnel must be kept at least several feet, or even tens of feet, away from the wires. Can you imagine trying to use an appliance, say a home computer, by plugging it into a 500-kV electrical outlet A bolt of artificial lightning would dispatch you before you even got near the receptacle. Medium-voltage power lines branch out from the major lines, and step-down transformers are used at the branch points. These lines fan out to still lower-voltage lines, and step-down transformers are employed at these points, too. Each transformer must have windings heavy enough to withstand the product P EI, the amount of power delivered to all the subscribers served by that transformer, at periods of peak demand. Sometimes, such as during a heat wave, the demand for electricity rises above the normal peak level. This loads down the circuit to the point that the voltage drops several percent. This is a brownout. If consumption rises further still, a dangerous current load is placed on one or more intermediate power transformers. Circuit breakers in the transformers protect them from destruction by opening the circuit. Then there is a temporary blackout. Finally, at individual homes and buildings, transformers step the voltage down to either 234 V or 117 V. Usually, 234-V electricity is in three phases, each separated by 120 degrees, and each appearing at one of the three prongs in the outlet (Fig. 18-9A). This voltage is commonly employed with heavy appliances, such as the kitchen oven/stove (if they are electric), heating (if it is electric), and the laundry washer and dryer. A 117-V outlet supplies just one phase, appearing between two of the three prongs in the outlet. The third prong is for ground (Fig. 18-9B).
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