barcode in vb.net 2005 At A, a balanced-to-unbalanced transformer. At B, an unbalanced-to-balanced transformer. in Software

Print QR Code in Software At A, a balanced-to-unbalanced transformer. At B, an unbalanced-to-balanced transformer.

18-10 At A, a balanced-to-unbalanced transformer. At B, an unbalanced-to-balanced transformer.
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The turns ratio of a balanced-to-unbalanced ( balun ) or unbalanced-to-balanced ( unbal ) transformer might be 1:1, but it doesn t have to be. If the impedances of the
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338 Transformers and impedance matching balanced and unbalanced parts of the systems are the same, then a 1:1 turns ratio is ideal. But if the impedances differ, the turns ratio should be such that the impedances are matched. This is discussed in the section on impedance transfer ratio that follows.
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Transformer coupling
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Transformers are sometimes used between amplifier stages in electronic equipment where a large amplification factor is needed. There are other methods of coupling from one amplifier stage to another, but transformers offer some advantages, especially in radio-frequency receivers and transmitters. Part of the problem in getting a radio to work is that the amplifiers must operate in a stable manner. If there is too much feedback, a series of amplifiers will oscillate, and this will severely degrade the performance of the radio. Transformers that minimize the capacitance between the amplifier stages, while still transferring the desired signals, can help to prevent this oscillation.
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Impedance-transfer ratio
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One of the most important applications of transformers is in audio-frequency (AF) and radio-frequency (RF) electronic circuits. In these applications, transformers are generally employed to match impedances. Thus, you might hear of an impedance step-up transformer, or an impedance step-down device. The impedance-transfer ratio of a transformer varies according to the square of the turns ratio, and also according to the square of the voltage-transfer ratio. Recall the formula for voltage-transfer ratio: Epri/Esec Tpri/Tsec
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If the input and output, or source and load, impedances are purely resistive, and are denoted by Zpri (at the primary winding) and Zsec (at the secondary), then Zpri/Zsec and Zpri/Zsec (Epri/Esec)2 (Tpri/Tsec)2
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The inverses of these formulas, in which the turns ratio or voltage-transfer ratio are expressed in terms of the impedance-transfer ratio, are Tpri/Tsec and Epri/Esec (Zpri/Zsec)1/2 (Zpri/Zsec)1/2
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The 1/2 power is the same thing as the square root.
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Problem 18-3
A transformer is needed to match an input impedance of 50.0 , purely resistive, to an output impedance of 300 , also purely resistive. What should the ratio Tpri/Tsec be
Radio-frequency transformers 339 The required transformer will have a step-up impedance ratio of Zpri/Zsec 50.0/300 1:6.00. From the above formulas, Tpri/Tsec (Zpri/Zsec)1/2 (1/6.00)1/2 0.166671/2 0.40829
A couple of extra digits are included (as they show up on the calculator) to prevent the sort of error introduction you recall from earlier chapters. The decimal value 0.40829 can be changed into ratio notation by taking its reciprocal, and then writing 1: followed by that reciprocal value 0.40829 1:(1/0.40829) 1:2.4492
This can be rounded to three significant figures, or 1:2.45. This is the primary-tosecondary turns ratio for the transformer. The secondary winding has 2.45 times as many turns as the primary winding.
Problem 18-4
A transformer has a primary-to-secondary turns ratio of 4.00:1. The load, connected to the transformer output, is a pure resistance of 37.5 . What is the impedance at the primary The impedance-transfer ratio is equal to the square of the turns ratio. Therefore, Zpri/Zsec (Tpri/Tsec)2 (4.00/1)2 4.002 16.0
This can be written 16.0:1. The input (primary) impedance is 16.0 times the secondary impedance. We know that the secondary impedance, Zsec is 37.5 . Therefore, Zpri 16.0 16.0 Zsec 37.5 600
Anything connected to the transformer primary will see a purely resistive impedance of 600 .
Radio-frequency transformers
In radio receivers and transmitters, transformers can be categorized generally by the method of construction used. Some have primary and secondary windings, just like utility and audio units. Others employ transmission-line sections. These are the two most common types of transformer found at radio frequencies.
Coil types
In the wound radio-frequency (RF) transformer, powdered-iron cores can be used up to quite high frequencies. Toroidal cores are most common, because they are self-shielding (all of the magnetic flux is confined within the core material). The number of turns depends on the frequency, and also on the permeability of the core. In high-power applications, air-core coils are sometimes used, because air, although it has a low permeability, also has extremely low hysteresis loss. The disadvantage of
340 Transformers and impedance matching air-core coils is that some of the magnetic flux extends outside of the coil. This affects the performance of the transformer when it must be placed in a cramped space, such as in a transmitter final-amplifier compartment. A major advantage of coil type transformers, especially when they are wound on toroidal cores, is that they can be made to work over a wide band of frequencies, such as from 3.5 MHz to 30 MHz. These are called broadband transformers.
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