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Frequency multiplication
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When current passes through a diode, half of the cycle is cut off, as shown in Fig. 20-1. This occurs no matter what the frequency, from 60-Hz utility current through RF, as long as the diode capacitance is not too great. The output wave from the diode looks much different than the input wave. This condition is known as nonlinearity. Whenever there is nonlinearity of any kind in a circuit that is, whenever the output waveform is shaped differently from the input waveform there will be harmonic frequencies in the output. These are waves at integer multiples of the input frequency. (If you ve forgotten what harmonics are, refer back to chapter 9.) Often, nonlinearity is undesirable. Then engineers strive to make the circuit linear, so that the output waveform has exactly the same shape as the input waveform. But sometimes a circuit is needed that will produce harmonics. Then nonlinearity is introduced deliberately. Diodes are ideal for this. A simple frequency-multiplier circuit is shown in Fig. 20-3. The output LC circuit is tuned to the desired nth harmonic frequency, nfo, rather than to the input or fundamental frequency, fo.
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20-3 A frequency multiplier circuit.
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For a diode to work as a frequency multiplier, it must be of a type that would also work well as a detector at the same frequencies. This means that the component should act like a rectifier, but not like a capacitor.
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Mixing 373
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Mixing
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When two waves having different frequencies are combined in a nonlinear circuit, new frequencies are produced. These new waves are at the sum and difference frequencies of the original waves. You ve probably noticed this mixing, also called heterodyning, if you ve ever heard two loud, sine wave tones at the same time. Suppose there are two signals with frequencies fl and f2. For mathematical convenience, assign f2 to the wave with the higher frequency. If these signals are combined in a nonlinear circuit, new waves will result. One of them will have a frequency f2 fl, and the other will be at f2 + f1. These are known as beat frequencies. The signals are called mixing products (Fig. 20-4).
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20-4 Spectral (frequency-domain) illustration of mixing. Frequency designators are discussed in the text.
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Figure 20-4 is a frequency domain graph. Amplitude (on the vertical scale) is shown as a function of frequency (on the horizontal scale). This kind of display is what engineers see when they look at the screen of a spectrum analyzer. Most of the graphs you ve seen so far have been time domain graphs, in which things are shown as a function of time. The screen of an oscilloscope normally shows things in the time domain. How do you get the nonlinearity necessary to obtain a mixer circuit There are various different schemes, but one common way is you guessed it to use diodes. Mixer circuits are discussed in chapter 27.
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374 Some uses of diodes
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Switching
The ability of diodes to conduct with forward bias, and to insulate with reverse bias, makes them useful for switching in some electronic applications. Diodes can switch at extremely high rates, much faster than any mechanical device. One type of diode, made for use as an RF switch, has a special semiconductor layer sandwiched in between the P-type and N-type material. This layer, called an intrinsic semiconductor, reduces the capacitance of the diode, so that it can work at higher frequencies than an ordinary diode. The intrinsic material is sometimes called I type. A diode with I-type semiconductor is called a PIN diode (Fig. 20-5).
20-5 The PIN diode has a layer of intrinsic (Itype) semiconductor at the P-N junction.
Direct-current bias, applied to one or more PIN diodes, allows RF currents to be effectively channeled without using complicated relays and cables. A PIN diode also makes a good RF detector, especially at frequencies above 30 MHz.
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