barcode in vb.net 2005 Voltage regulation in Software

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Voltage regulation
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Most diodes have avalanche breakdown voltages much higher than the reverse bias ever gets. The value of the avalanche voltage depends on how a diode is manufactured. Zener diodes are made to have well-defined, constant avalanche voltages. Suppose a certain Zener diode has an avalanche voltage, also called the Zener voltage, of 50 V. If a reverse bias is applied to the P-N junction, the diode acts as an open circuit below 50 V. When the voltage reaches 50 V, the diode starts to conduct. The more the reverse bias tries to increase, the more current flows through the P-N junction. This effectively prevents the reverse voltage from exceeding 50 V. The current through a Zener diode, as a function of the voltage, is shown in Fig. 20-6. The Zener voltage is indicated by the abrupt rise in reverse current as the reverse bias increases. A typical Zener-diode voltage-limiting circuit is shown in Fig. 20-7. There are other ways to get voltage regulation besides the use of Zener diodes, but Zener diodes often provide the simplest and least expensive alternative. Zener diodes are available with a wide variety of voltage and power-handling ratings. Power supplies for solid-state equipment commonly employ Zener diode regulators. Details about power supply design are coming up in chapter 21.
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Amplitude limiting
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The forward breakover voltage of a germanium diode is about 0.3 V; for a silicon diode it is about 0.6 V. In the last chapter, you learned that a diode will not conduct until the forward bias voltage is at least as great as the forward breakover voltage. The flip side
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Amplitude limiting 375
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20-6 Current through a Zener diode, as a function of the bias voltage.
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20-7 Connection of Zener diode for voltage regulation.
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is that the diode will always conduct when the forward bias exceeds the breakover value. In this case, the voltage across the diode will be constant: 0.3 V for germanium and 0.6 V for silicon. This property can be used to advantage when it is necessary to limit the amplitude of a signal, as shown in Fig. 20-8. By connecting two identical diodes back-to-back in parallel with the signal path (A), the maximum peak amplitude is limited, or clipped, to the forward breakover voltage of the diodes. The input and output waveforms of a clipped signal are illustrated at B. This scheme is sometimes used in radio receivers to prevent blasting when a strong signal comes in. The downside of the diode limiter circuit is that it introduces distortion when limiting is taking place. This might not be a problem for reception of Morse code, or for signals that rarely reach the limiting voltage. But for voice signals with amplitude peaks that rise well past the limiting voltage, it can seriously degrade the audio quality, perhaps even rendering the words indecipherable.
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376 Some uses of diodes
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20-8 At A, two diodes can work as a limiter. At B, the peaks are cut off by the action of the diodes.
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Frequency control
When a diode is reverse-biased, there is a region at the P-N junction with dielectric properties. As you know from the last chapter, this is called the depletion region, because it has a shortage of majority charge carriers. The width of this zone depends on several things, including the reverse voltage. As long as the reverse bias is less than the avalanche voltage, varying the bias can change the width of the depletion region. This results in a change in the capacitance of the junction. The capacitance, which is always quite small (on the order of picofarads), varies inversely with the square root of the reverse bias. Some diodes are manufactured especially for use as variable capacitors. These are varactor diodes. Sometimes you ll hear them called varicaps. They are made from silicon or gallium arsenide. A common use for a varactor diode is in a circuit called a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). A voltage-tuned circuit, using a coil and a varactor, is shown in Fig. 20-9. This is a parallel-tuned circuit. The fixed capacitor, whose value is large compared with that of the varactor, serves to keep the coil from short-circuiting the control voltage across the varactor. Notice that the symbol for the varactor has two lines on the cathode side. This is its signature, so that you know that it s a varactor, and not just an ordinary diode.
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