barcode in vb.net 2005 The bridge rectifier in Software

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The bridge rectifier
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Another way to get full-wave rectification is the bridge rectifier. It is diagrammed in Fig. 21-6. The output waveform is just like that of the full-wave, center-tap circuit. The average dc output voltage in the bridge circuit is 90 percent of the rms ac input voltage, just as is the case with center-tap rectification. The PIV across the diodes is 1.4 times the rms ac input voltage. Therefore, each diode needs to have a PIV rating of at least 2.1 times the rms ac input voltage.
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388 Power supplies
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21-5 At A, schematic diagram of a full-wave, center-tap rectifier. At B, output waveform from this rectifier.
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21-6 Schematic diagram of a full-wave bridge rectifier.
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The bridge circuit does not need a center-tapped transformer secondary. This is its main practical advantage. Electrically, the bridge circuit uses the entire secondary on both halves of the wave cycle; the center-tap circuit uses one side of the secondary for one half of the cycle, and the other side for the other half of the cycle. For this reason, the bridge circuit makes more efficient use of the transformer. The main disadvantage of the bridge circuit is that it needs four diodes rather than two. This doesn t always amount to much in terms of cost, but it can be important when
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The voltage doubler 389 a power supply must deliver a high current. Then, the extra diodes two for each half of the cycle, rather than one dissipate more overall heat energy. When current is used up as heat, it can t go to the load. Therefore, center-tap circuits are preferable in high-current applications.
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The voltage doubler
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By using diodes and capacitors connected in certain ways, a power supply can be made to deliver a multiple of the peak ac input voltage. Theoretically, large whole-number multiples are possible. But you won t often see power supplies that make use of multiplication factors larger than 2. In practice, voltage multipliers are practical only when the load draws low current. Otherwise, the regulation is poor; the output voltage changes considerably with changes in the load resistance. This bugaboo gets worse and worse as the multiplication factor increases. This is why engineers don t attempt to make, say, a factor-of-16 voltage multiplier. For a good high-voltage power supply, the best approach is to use a step-up transformer, not a voltage multiplier. A voltage-doubler circuit is shown in Fig. 21-7. This circuit works on the whole ac input wave cycle, and is therefore called a full-wave voltage doubler. Its dc output voltage, when the current drawn is low, is about twice the peak ac input voltage, or about 2.8 times the rms ac input voltage.
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21-7 A full-wave voltage doubler.
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Notice the capacitors in this circuit. The operation of any voltage multiplier is dependent on the ability of these capacitors to hold a charge, even when a load is connected to the output of the supply. Thus, the capacitors must have large values. If the intent is to get a high dc voltage from the supply, massive capacitors will be necessary. Also, notice the resistors in series with the diodes. These have low values, similar to those needed when diodes are connected in parallel. When the supply is switched on, the capacitors draw a huge initial charging current. Without the resistors, it would be necessary to use diodes with astronomical Io ratings. Otherwise the surge current would burn them out.
390 Power supplies This circuit subjects the diodes to a PIV of 2.8 times the rms ac input voltage. Therefore, they should be rated for PIV of at least 4.2 times the rms ac input voltage. In this circuit, each capacitor charges to the peak ac input voltage when there is no load (the output current is zero). As the load draws current, the capacitors will have trouble staying charged to the peak ac input voltage. This isn t much of a problem as long as the load is light, that is, if the current is low. But,for heavy loads, the output voltage will drop, and it will not be smooth dc. The major difference between the voltage doubler and the supplies discussed previously, besides the increased output voltage, is the fact that the dc output is filtered. The capacitors serve two purposes: to boost the voltage and to filter the output. Additional filtering might be wanted to smooth out the dc still more, but the circuit of Fig. 21-7 is a complete, if crude, power supply all by itself.
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