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Occasionally, you ll find a power supply that uses a gas-filled tube, rather than solid-state components, to obtain regulation. The tube acts something like a very-high-power Zener
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Surge current 393
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21-12 A voltage regulator circuit using a Zener diode and a power transistor.
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diode. The voltage drop across a gaseous tube, designed for voltage regulation, is nearly constant. Tubes are available for regulation at moderately high voltages.
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At the instant a power supply is switched on, a sudden current surge occurs, even with no load at the output. This is because the filter capacitor(s) need an initial charge, and they draw a lot of current for a short time. The surge current is far greater than the operating current. This can destroy the rectifier diodes. The phenomenon is worst in high-voltage supplies and voltage-multiplier circuits. Diode failure can be prevented in at least four different ways. The first method uses brute force. You can simply use diodes with a current rating of many times the operating level. The main disadvantage is cost. High-voltage, high-current diodes can get expensive. A second method involves connecting several units in parallel wherever a diode is called for in the circuit. This is actually a variation on the first method. The overall cost might be less. Current-equalizing resistors are necessary. A third scheme for surge protection is to apply the input voltage little by little. A variable transformer, called a Variac, is useful for this. You start at zero input and turn a knob to get up to the full voltage. This can completely get rid of the current surge. A fourth way to limit the current surge is to use an automatic switching circuit in the transformer primary. This applies a reduced ac voltage for a second or two, and then switches in the full input voltage. Which of these methods is best It depends on the overall cost, the operating convenience, and the whim of the design engineer.
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The ac on the utility line is a sine wave with a constant rms voltage near 117 V. But there are spikes, known as transients, lasting microseconds or milliseconds, that attain peak values of several hundred or even several thousand volts. Transients are caused by sudden changes in the load in a utility circuit. Lightning can also produce them. Unless they are suppressed, they can destroy the diodes in a power supply. Transients can also befuddle the operation of sensitive equipment like personal computers. The simplest way to get rid of most transients is to place a capacitor of about 0.01 F, rated for 600 V or more, across the transformer primary (Fig. 21-13). Commercially made transient suppressors are also available. In the event of a thunderstorm locally, the best way to protect equipment is to unplug it from the wall outlet. This is inconvenient, of course. But if you have a personal computer, hi-fi set, or other electronic appliance that you like a lot, it s not a bad idea.
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21-13 A capacitor, C, in parallel with the primary of the transformer, helps suppress transients.
Fuses and breakers
A fuse is a piece of soft wire that melts, breaking a circuit if the current exceeds a certain level. Fuses are placed in series with the transformer primary (Fig. 21-14). Any component failure, short circuit, or overload that might cause catastrophic damage (or fire!) will burn the fuse out. Fuses are easy to replace, although it s aggravating if a fuse blows and you don t have replacements on hand.
21-14 A fuse, F, in series with the ac input protects the transformer and diode, in case of overload.
If a fuse blows, it must be replaced with another of the same rating. If the replacement fuse is rated too low in current, it will probably blow out right away, or soon after
Personal Saftety 395 it has been installed. If the replacement fuse is rated too high in current, it might not protect the equipment. Fuses are available in two types: quick-break and slow-blow. You can usually recognize a slow-blow fuse by the spring inside. A quick-break fuse has only a wire or foil strip. When replacing a fuse, use the right kind. Quick-break fuses in slow-blow situations might burn out needlessly; slow-blow units in quick-break environments won t provide the proper protection. Circuit breakers do the same thing as fuses, except that a breaker can be reset by turning off the power supply, waiting a moment, and then pressing a button or flipping a switch. Some breakers reset automatically when the equipment has been shut off for a certain length of time. If a fuse or breaker keeps blowing out often, or if it blows immediately after you ve replaced or reset it, then something is wrong with the supply or with the equipment connected to it.
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