barcode in vb.net 2005 The bipolar transistor in Software

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The bipolar transistor
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THE WORD TRANSISTOR IS A CONTRACTION OF CURRENT-TRANSFERRING RESIStor. This is an excellent description of what a bipolar transistor does. Bipolar transistors have two P-N junctions connected together. This is done in either of two ways: a P-type layer sandwiched between two N-type layers, or an N type layer between two P-type layers. Bipolar transistors, like diodes, can be made from various semiconductor substances. Silicon is probably the most common material used.
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NPN versus PNP
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A simplified drawing of an NPN transistor, and its schematic symbol, are shown in Fig. 22-1. The P-type, or center, layer is called the base. The thinner of the N-type semiconductors is the emitter, and the thicker is the collector. Sometimes these are labeled B, E, and C in schematic diagrams, although the transistor symbol alone is enough to tell you which is which. A PNP bipolar transistor is just the opposite of an NPN device, having two P-type layers, one on either side of a thin, N-type layer (Fig. 22-2). The emitter layer is thinner, in most units, than the collector layer. You can always tell whether a bipolar transistor in a diagram is NPN or PNP. With the NPN, the arrow points outward; with the PNP it points inward. The arrow is always at the emitter. Generally, PNP and NPN transistors can do the same things in electronic circuits. The only difference is the polarities of the voltages, and the directions of the currents. In most applications, an NPN device can be replaced with a PNP device or vice versa, and the power-supply polarity reversed, and the circuit will still work as long as the new device has the appropriate specifications.
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NPN biasing 401
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22-1 At A, pictorial diagram of an NPN transistor. At B, the schematic symbol. Electrodes are E emitter, B base, C collector.
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22-2 At A, pictorial diagram of a PNP transistor. At B, schematic symbol; E base, C collector.
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emitter, B
There are many different kinds of NPN or PNP bipolar transistors. Some are used for radio-frequency amplifiers and oscillators; others are intended for audio frequencies. Some can handle high power, and others cannot, being made for weak-signal work. Some bipolar transistors are manufactured for the purpose of switching, rather than signal processing. If you look through a catalog of semiconductor components, you ll find hundreds of different bipolar transistors, each with its own unique set of specifications. Why, you might ask, need there be two different kinds of bipolar transistor (NPN and PNP), if they do exactly the same things Sometimes engineers need to have both kinds in one circuit. Also, there are some subtle differences in behavior between the two types. These considerations are beyond the scope of this book. But you should know that the NPN/PNP duality is not just whimsy on the part of people who want to make things complicated.
NPN biasing
You can think of a bipolar transistor as two diodes in reverse series. You can t normally connect two diodes together this way and get a good transistor, but the analogy is good for
402 The bipolar transistor modeling the behavior of bipolar transistors, so that their operation is easier to understand. A dual-diode NPN transistor model is shown in Fig. 22-3. The base is formed by the connection of the two diode anodes. The emitter is one of the cathodes, and the collector is the other.
22-3 At A, simple NPN circuit using dual-diode modeling. At B, the actual transistor circuit.
The normal method of biasing an NPN transistor is to have the emitter negative and the collector positive. This is shown by the connection of the battery in Fig. 22-3. Typical voltages for this battery (although it might be, and often is, a dc power supply) range from 3 V to about 50 V. Most often, 6 V, 9 V, or 12 V supplies are used. The base is labeled control in the figure. This is because the flow of current through the transistor depends critically on the base bias voltage, EB, relative to the emitter-collector bias voltage, EC.
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