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The current gain of a circuit is calculated just the same way as for voltage. If Iin is the rms ac input current and Iout is the rms ac output current, then Gain (dB) 20 log (Iout/Iin)
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Often, a circuit that produces voltage gain will produce current loss, and vice versa. An excellent example is a simple ac transformer. Some circuits have gain for both the voltage and the current, although not the same decibel figures. The reason is that the output impedance is different from the input impedance, altering the ratio of voltage to current.
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The power gain of a circuit, in decibels, is calculated according to the formula Gain (dB) 10 log (Pout/Pin)
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where Pout is the output signal power and Pin is the input signal power.
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A power amplifier has an input of 5.03 W and an output of 125 W. What is the gain in decibels 125/5.03 24.85.... Then find the logarithm: log First find the ratio Pout/Pin 24.85... 1.395.... Finally, multiply by 10 and round off: Gain 10 1.395... 14.0 dB.
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An attenuator provides 10 dB power reduction. The input power is 94 W. What is the output power This problem requires you to plug values into the formula. An attenuator produces a power loss. When you hear that the attenuation is 10 dB, it is the same thing as a gain of 10 dB. You know Pin 94 W, the unknown is Pout. Therefore, 10 10 log (Pout/94)
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436 Amplifiers Solving this formula proceeds in several steps. First, divide each side by 10, getting 1 log (Pout/94)
Then, take the base-10 antilogarithm, also known as the antilog, of each side. The antilog function is the inverse of the log function; that is, it undoes the log function. The function antilog (x) is sometimes written as 10x. Thus antilog ( 1) 10
Pout/94
Now, multiply each side of the equation by 94, getting 94 0.1 9.4 Pout
Therefore, the output power is 9.4 W. Don t confuse the voltage/current and power formulas. In general, for a given output/input ratio, the dB gain for voltage or current is twice the dB gain for power. Table 24-1 gives dB gain figures for various ratios of voltage, current, and power.
Table 24-1.
Decibel gain figures for various ratios of voltage, current, and power.
Voltage or current gain Power gain 90 dB 80 dB 70 dB 60 dB 50 dB 40 dB 30 dB 20 dB 10 dB 6 dB 3 dB 0 dB 3 dB 6 dB 10 dB 20 dB 30 dB 40 dB 50 dB 60 dB 70 dB 80 dB 90 dB 100 dB
Ratio 0.000 000 001 (10 0.000 000 01 (10 8) 0.000 000 1 (10 7) 0.000 001 (10 6) 0.000 01 (10 5) 0.000 1 (10 4) 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 10 100 1000 10,000 (104) 100,000 (105) 1,000,000 (106) 10,000,000 (107) 100,000,000 (108) 1,000,000,000 (109) 10,000,000,000 (1010)
180 dB 160 dB 140 dB 120 dB l00 dB 80 dB 60 dB 40 dB 20 dB 12 dB 6 dB 0 dB 6 dB 12 dB 20 dB 40 dB 60 dB 80 dB 100 dB 120 dB 140 dB 160 dB 180 dB 200 dB
Basic bipolar amplifier circuit 437
Basic bipolar amplifier circuit
In the previous chapters, you saw some circuits that will work as amplifiers. The principle is the same for all electronic amplification circuits. A signal is applied at some control point, causing a much greater signal to appear at the output. In Fig. 24-2, an NPN bipolar transistor is connected as a common-emitter amplifier. The input signal passes through C2 to the base. Resistors R2 and R3 provide bias. Resistor R1 and capacitor C1 allow for the emitter to have a dc voltage relative to ground, while being grounded for signals. Resistor R1 also limits the current through the transistor. The ac output signal goes through capacitor C3. Resistor R4 keeps the ac output signal from being short-circuited through the power supply.
24-2 An amplifier using a bipolar transistor. Component designators and values are discussed in the text.
In this amplifier, the capacitors must have values large enough to allow the ac signal to pass with ease. But they shouldn t be much larger than the minimum necessary for this purpose. If an 0.1- F capacitor will suffice, there s no point in using a 47- F capacitor. That would introduce unwanted losses into the circuit, and would also make the circuit needlessly expensive to build. The ideal capacitance values depend on the design frequency of the amplifier, and also on the impedances at the input and output. In general, as the frequency and/or circuit impedance increase, less and less capacitance is needed. At audio frequencies, say 300 Hz to 20 kHz, and at low impedance, the capacitors might be as large as 100 F. At radio frequencies, such as 1 MHz to 50 MHz, and with high impedances, values will be only a
438 Amplifiers fraction of a microfarad, down to picofarads at the highest frequencies and impedances. The exact values are determined by the design engineers, working to optimize circuit performance in the lab. The resistor values likewise depend on the application. Typical values are R1 470 , R2 4.7 K , R3 10K , and R4 4.7 K for a weak-signal, broadband amplifier. If the circuit is used as a power amplifier, such as in a radio transmitter or a stereo hi-fi amplifier, the values of the resistors will be different. It might be necessary to bias the base negatively with respect to the emitter, using a second power supply with a voltage negative with respect to ground.
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