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The Clapp circuit
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A variation of the Colpitts oscillator makes use of series resonance, instead of parallel resonance, in the tuned circuit. Otherwise, the circuit is basically the same as the parallel-tuned Colpitts oscillator. A schematic diagram of an N-channel JFET Clapp oscillator circuit is shown in Fig. 25-5. The P-channel circuit is identical, except for the power supply polarity, which is reversed. The bipolar-transistor Clapp circuit is almost exactly the same as the circuit of Fig. 25-5, with the emitter in place of the source, the base in place of the gate, and the collector
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462 Oscillators
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25-4 Colpitts oscillators. At A, NPN bipolar transistor; at B, N-channel JFET.
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in place of the drain. The only difference, as you can probably guess by now, is the addition of a resistor between the base and the positive supply voltage (for NPN) or the negative supply voltage (for PNP). The Clapp oscillator offers excellent stability at RF. Its frequency won t change much when high-quality components are used. The Clapp oscillator is a reliable circuit;
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Stability 463
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25-5 Series-tuned Colpitts oscillators using an N-channel JFET.
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it isn t hard to get it to oscillate. Another advantage of the Clapp circuit is that it allows the use of a variable capacitor for frequency control, while still accomplishing feedback through a capacitive voltage divider.
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The term stability is used often by engineers when they talk about oscillators. In an oscillator, stability has two meanings: constancy of frequency and reliability of performance. Obviously, both of these considerations are important in the design of a good oscillator circuit.
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Constancy of frequency
The foregoing oscillator types allow for frequency adjustment using variable capacitors or variable inductors. The component values are affected by temperature, and sometimes by humidity. When designing a variable-frequency oscillator (VFO), it s crucial that the components maintain constant values, as much as possible, under all anticipated conditions. Some types of capacitors maintain their values better than others, when the temperature goes up or down. Among the best are polystyrene capacitors. Silver-mica capacitors also work well when polystyrene units can t be found. Inductors are most temperature-stable when they have air cores. They should be wound, when possible, from stiff wire with strips of plastic to keep the windings in place. Some air-core coils are wound on hollow cylindrical cores, made of ceramic or phenolic
464 Oscillators material. Ferromagnetic solenoidal or toroidal cores aren t very good for VFO coils, because these materials change their permeability as the temperature varies. This changes the inductance, in turn affecting the oscillator frequency. Engineers spend much time and effort in finding components that will minimize drift (unwanted changes in frequency over time) in VFOs.
Reliability of performance
An oscillator should always start working as soon as power is supplied. It should keep oscillating under all normal conditions, not quitting if the load changes slightly or if the temperature rises or falls. A finicky oscillator is a great annoyance. The failure of a single oscillator can cause an entire receiver, transmitter, or transceiver to stop working. An oscillator is sometimes called unstable if it has to be coaxed into starting, or if it quits unpredictably. Some oscillator circuits are more reliable than others. The circuits generalized in this chapter are those that engineers have found, through trial and error over the years, to work the best. When an oscillator is built and put to use in a radio receiver, transmitter, or audio device, debugging is always necessary. This is a trial-and-error process of getting the flaws, or bugs out of the circuit. Rarely can an engineer build something straight from the drawing board and have it work just right the first time. In fact, if two oscillators are built from the same diagram, with the same component types and values in the same geometric arrangement, one circuit might work fine, and the other might be unstable. This usually happens because of differences in the quality of components that don t show up until the acid test. Oscillators are designed to work into a certain range of load impedances. It s important that the load impedance not be too low. (You need never be concerned that it might be too high. In general, the higher the load impedance, the better.) If the load impedance is too low, the load will try to draw power from an oscillator. Then, even a well-designed oscillator might be unstable. Oscillators aren t meant to produce powerful signals. High power can be obtained using amplification after the oscillator.
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