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25-8 Block diagram of a PLL frequency synthesizer.
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At ultra-high and microwave frequencies, certain types of diodes can be used as oscillators. These diodes, called Gunn, IMPATT, and tunnel diodes, were discussed in chapter 20.
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The above described oscillators work above the human hearing range. At audio frequencies (AF), oscillators can use RC or LC combinations to determine frequency. If LC circuits are used, the inductances must be rather large, and ferromagnetic cores are usually necessary. All RF oscillators produce a sine-wave output. A pure sine wave represents energy at one and only one frequency. Audio oscillators, by contrast, don t necessarily concentrate all their energy at a single frequency. A pure AF sine wave, especially if it is continuous and frequency-constant, causes ear/mind fatigue. Perhaps you ve experienced it. The various musical instruments in a band or orchestra all sound different from each other, even when they play the same note (such as middle C). The reason for this is that each instrument has its own unique waveform. A clarinet sounds different than a trumpet, which in turn sounds different than a cello or piano. Suppose you were to use an oscilloscope to look at the waveforms of musical instruments. This can be done using a high-fidelity microphone, a low-distortion amplifier, and a scope. You d see that each instrument has its own signature. Each instrument s unique sound qualities can be reproduced using AF oscillators whose waveform outputs match those of the instrument. The art of electronic music is a subject to which whole books have been devoted. All electronic music synthesizers use audio oscillators to generate the tones you hear.
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Audio oscillators find uses in doorbells, ambulance sirens, electronic games, and those little toys that play simple musical tunes. All AF oscillators work in the same way, consisting of amplifiers with positive feedback.
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A simple audio oscillator
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One form of AF oscillator that is popular for general-purpose use is the twin-T oscillator (Fig. 25-9). The frequency is determined by the values of the resistors R and capacitors C. The output is a near-perfect sine wave. The small amount of distortion helps to alleviate the irritation produced by an absolutely pure sinusoid. This circuit uses two NPN bipolar transistors. Two JFETs could also be used, biased for class-A amplifier operation.
The multivibrator
Another audio-oscillator circuit uses two identical common-emitter or common-source amplifier circuits, hooked up so that the signal goes around and around between them.
25-9 A twin-T audio oscillator.
Quiz 469 This is sometimes called a multivibrator circuit, although that is technically a misnomer, the term being more appropriate to various digital signal-generating circuits. Two N-channel JFETs are connected to form an oscillator as shown in Fig. 25-10. Each stage amplifies the signal in class-A, and reverses the phase by 180 degrees. Thus, the signal goes through a 360-degree shift each time it gets back to any particular point. A 360-degree shift results in positive feedback, being effectively equivalent to no phase shift. The frequency is set by means of an LC circuit. The coil uses a ferromagnetic core, because stability is not of great concern and because such a core is necessary to obtain the large inductance needed for resonance at audio frequencies. The value of L is typically from 10 mH to as much as 1 H. The capacitance is chosen according to the formula for resonant circuits, to obtain an audio tone at the frequency desired.
25-10 A multivibrator type audio oscillator.
IC oscillators
In recent years, solid-state technology has advanced to the point that whole circuits can be etched onto silicon chips. Such devices are called integrated circuits (ICs). The operational amplifier (op amp) is one type of IC that is especially useful as an oscillator. Op-amp oscillators are most commonly employed as audio oscillators. Integrated circuits are discussed in chapter 28.
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