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Up conversion versus down conversion
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Suppose the signals to a mixer are at frequencies f l and f 2, with f 2 being the higher frequency. The mixer has a nonlinear active element, such as a diode or a class-B-biased transistor. The circuit generates new signals, in addition to passing the original two signals. Outputs will appear at f l, f 2, f 2 + f l, and f 2 f l. A typical mixer circuit is diagrammed in Fig. 27-10. The output has a tuned circuit f 1. If the output is tuned to the sum of the two inthat is set to either f 2 + f l or at f 2 put frequencies, the output frequency, fout, is higher than either of the input frequencies. If the output is tuned to the difference frequency, the new signal is either in between the two inputs, or else lower than both. Let f 1 represent the frequency of a signal that you want to convert via mixing. Let f 2 be the signal from a local oscillator (LO). If the sum output frequency is used, you have up conversion. If the difference frequency is used, and if f 2 is selected so that fout is less than f 1, you have down conversion.
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A VLF/LF converter
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Up conversion is sometimes used for reception of very low-frequency (VLF) and low-frequency (LF) radio (9 kHz to 300 kHz). The VLF or LF input is mixed with an LO to provide an output that falls within the range of a shortwave receiver, say over the range 3.509 MHz to 3.800 MHz. A block diagram of an up converter for VLF/LF is shown in Fig. 27-11A. The LO frequency is 3.500 MHz. This VLF/LF converter produces mirror-image output duplicates, one above 3.509 MHz and the other from 3.200 to 3.491 MHz. Does this seem like a super-broadbanded AM signal, having an overall bandwidth of 600 kHz, with USB at 3.509 to 3.800 MHz and LSB at 3.200 to 3.491 MHz If you think so, you re right. Up conversion produces AM. When you tune from 3.509 to 3.800 MHz, thereby hearing VLF/LF signals from 9 to 300 kHz, you are actually listening to little slices of the USB of a wideband AM signal.
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27-10 A passive mixer.
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A UHF/microwave converter
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Down conversion is often used to allow reception of ultra-high-frequency (UHF) and microwave signals (above 300 MHz). The UHF or microwave input is mixed with an LO to provide an output that falls within the tuning range of a shortwave VHF receiver. A block diagram of a down converter for UHF/microwave reception is shown in Fig. 27-11B. This converter has an output that covers a huge band of frequencies. In fact, a single frequency allocation at UHF or microwave might be larger than the entire frequency range of a shortwave receiver. An example is a UHF converter designed to cover 1.000 GHz to 1.100 GHz. This is a span of 100 MHz, more than three times the whole range of a shortwave radio. To receive 1.000 to 1.100 GHz using a down converter and a shortwave receiver, the LO frequency must be switchable. Suppose you have a communications receiver that tunes in 1-MHz bands. You might choose one of these bands, say 7.000 to 8.000 MHz and use a keypad to choose LO frequencies from 0.993 GHz to 1.092 GHz. This will produce a difference-frequency output at 7.000 to 8.000 MHz for 100 segments, each 1 MHz wide, in the desired band of reception. If you want to hear the segment 1.023 to 1.024 GHz, you set the LO at 1.016 MHz. This produces an output range from 1023 1016 = 7 MHz to 1024 1016 = 8 MHz.
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