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Integrated circuits and data storage media
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THE MOST ADVANCED ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS CONTAIN HUNDREDS, thousands, or even millions of diodes, transistors, resistors, and capacitors. This is especially true of industrial and personal computers. These devices use circuits fabricated onto wafers, or chips, of semiconductor material, usually silicon. The chips are enclosed in little boxes or cans with pins for connection to external components. Integrated circuits (ICs) have stimulated as much change as, and perhaps more evolution than, any other single development in the history of electronic technology.
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Most ICs look like gray or black plastic boxes with protruding pins. Common configurations are the single inline package (SIP), the dual inline package (DIP) and the flatpack. Another package looks like a transistor with too many leads. This is a metal-can package, sometimes also called a TO package. Examples are shown in Fig. 28-1. Not only does an IC look like a box or can; the schematic symbols for most ICs are simple geometric shapes such as triangles or rectangles. A component designator is usually written inside the polygon, and the wires emerging from it are labeled according to their specific functions. But the circuit details are usually too complicated to be drawn in schematic diagrams. There s no point in rendering all that detail anyway; it would only confuse engineers and technicians, and make the schematic diagrams so large that they might cover a wall, or a football field, or the state of Kansas. So then an IC is a black box. The engineer or technician can forget about its inner workings, just as you don t dwell upon what s happening inside your personal computer as you use it. Even with the simplicity of the IC symbol, an apparatus using many ICs can have nightmarish schematic diagrams, with dozens of wires running around as parallel lines so close together that you must run a pencil along them to keep track of them. 521
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522 Integrated circuits and data storage media
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28-1 IC packages: SIP (A), DIP (B), flatpack (C), and metal can (D).
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Advantages of IC technology
Integrated circuits have several advantages over individual, or discrete, components.
Compactness
An obvious asset of IC design is economy of space; ICs are far more compact than equivalent circuits made from individual transistors, diodes, capacitors, and resistors. A corollary to this is the fact that far more complex circuits can be built, and kept down to a reasonable size, using ICs as compared with discrete components. Thus, you see notebook computers, also known as laptops, with capabilities more advanced than early computers that took up whole rooms.
High speed
Another corollary to the compactness of ICs is the fact that the interconnections among components are physically tiny, making high switching speeds possible. Electric currents travel fast, but not instantaneously. The less time charge carriers need to get from component X to component Y, in general, the more computations are possible within a given span of time, and the less time is needed for complex operations.
Low power requirement
Another advantage of ICs is that they use less power than equivalent discrete-component circuits. This is especially important if batteries are to be used for operation. Because ICs use so little current, they produce less heat than their discrete-component equivalents. This translates into better efficiency. It also minimizes the problems that plague equipment that gets hot with use, such as frequency drift and generation of internal noise.
Limitations of IC technology 523
Reliability
Integrated circuits fail less often, per component-hour of use, than appliances that make use of discrete components. This is mainly a result of the fact that all interconnections are sealed within the IC case, preventing corrosion or the intrusion of dust. The reduced failure rate translates into less downtime, or time during which the equipment is out of service for repairs.
Ease of maintenance
Integrated-circuit technology lowers maintenance costs, mainly because repair procedures are simplified when failures do occur. Many appliances use sockets for ICs, and replacement is simply a matter of finding the faulty IC, unplugging it, and plugging in a new one. Special desoldering equipment is used with appliances having ICs soldered directly to the circuit boards.
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