barcode printing using vb.net Symbol for an op amp. Connections are discussed in the text. in Software

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28-3 Symbol for an op amp. Connections are discussed in the text.
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The gain characteristics of an op amp are determined by external resistors. Normally, a resistor is connected between the output and the inverting input. This is called the closed-loop configuration. The feedback is negative (out of phase), causing the gain of the op amp to be less than it would be if there were no feedback (open loop). A closed-loop amplifier using an op amp is shown in Fig. 28-4. Why, you might ask, would you want to reduce the gain of an amplifier The answer is that excessive gain can cause problems. An amplifier can be too sensitive, overloading the following circuits, generating too much noise, or producing unwanted responses.
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28-4
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Closed-loop op-amp configuration.
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526 Integrated circuits and data storage media Open-loop op amps, when used at low frequencies, have extremely high gain, and are prone to instability. They are also usually quite noisy. When resistor-capacitor (RC) combinations are used in the feedback loop of an op amp, the amplification changes with frequency. It is possible to get a low-pass response, a high-pass response, a resonant peak, or a resonant notch using an op amp and various RC feedback arrangements. These four responses are shown in Fig. 28-5 as amplitude versus-frequency graphs.
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28-5 At A, low-pass response; at B, high-pass response; at C, resonant peak; at D, resonant notch.
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The regulator
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A voltage regulator IC acts to control the output voltage of a power supply. This is important with precision electronic equipment. These ICs are available in various different voltage and current ratings. Typical voltage regulator ICs have three terminals. They look somewhat like power transistors.
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A timer IC is actually a form of oscillator. It produces a delayed output, with the delay being adjustable to suit the needs of a particular device. The delay is generated by counting the number of oscillator pulses; the length of the delay can be adjusted by means of external resistors and capacitors.
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MOS digital ICs 527
The analog multiplexer
The analog multiplexer IC allows several different signals to be combined in a single channel via time-division multiplexing, in a manner similar to that used with pulse modulation. (This was discussed in chapter 27.) An analog multiplexer can also be used in reverse; then it works as a demultiplexer. Thus, you ll sometimes hear engineers talk about multiplexer/demultiplexer ICs.
The comparator
Like an op amp, a comparator IC has two inputs. The comparator does just what its name implies: it compares the voltages at the two inputs (called A and B). If the input at A is significantly greater than the input at B, the output will be about + 5 V. This is logic 1, or high. If the input at A is not greater than the input at B, the output voltage will be about + 2 V. This is designated as logic 0, or low. Voltage comparators are available for a variety of applications. Some can switch between low and high states at a rapid rate of speed; others are slower. Some have low input impedance, and others have high impedance. Some are intended for audio or low-frequency use; others are fabricated for video or high-frequency applications. Voltage comparators are used to actuate, or trigger, other devices such as relays and electronic switching circuits.
Bipolar digital ICs
Digital ICs consist of gates that perform logical operations at high speeds. There are several different technologies, each with its own unique characteristics. Digital-logic technology might use bipolar transistors or metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices.
In transistor-transistor logic (TTL), arrays of bipolar transistors, some with multiple emitters, operate on dc pulses. This technology has several variants, some of which date back to around 1970. The hallmark of TTL is immunity to noise pulses. A simple TTL gate is illustrated in Fig. 28-6. The transistors are either completely cut off, or else completely saturated. This is the reason why TTL is not very much affected by external noise distractions.
Another bipolar-transistor logic form is known as emitter-coupled logic (ECL). In ECL, the transistors are not operated at saturation, as they are with TTL. This increases the speed of operation of ECL compared with TTL. But noise pulses have a greater effect in ECL, because unsaturated transistors amplify as well as switch signals. The schematic of Fig. 28-7 shows a simple ECL gate.
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