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Several variants of MOS technology have been developed for use in digital devices. They all offer superior miniaturization and reduced power requirements as compared with bipolar digital ICs.
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528 Integrated circuits and data storage media
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28-6 A simple TTL gate.
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28-7 A simple ECL gate.
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Complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), pronounced seamoss (and sometimes written that way by lay people who have heard the term but never seen it in documentation), employs both N-type and P-type silicon on a single chip. This is analogous to using N-channel and P-channel FETs in a circuit. The main advantages of CMOS technology are extremely low current drain, high operating speed, and immunity to noise.
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N-channel MOS (NMOS) offers simplicity of design, along with high operating speed. P-channel MOS is similar to NMOS, but the speed is slower. An NMOS or PMOS digital IC is like a circuit that uses only N-channel FETs, or only P-channel FETs. You might think of NMOS as batting right-handed, and PMOS as batting left-handed. (Then CMOS is analogous to switch hitting.)
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New trends
Research is constantly being done to find ways to increase the speed, reduce the power requirements, and improve the miniaturization of digital ICs. The motivation arises mainly from constant consumer pressure for more sophisticated and portable computers. As the technology advances, you can expect to see notebook (laptop) personal computers with more memory and higher working speed. The batteries will also last longer, because evolving technologies will consume less current.
Component density
The number of elements per chip in an IC is called the component density. There has been a steady increase in the number of components that can be fabricated on a single chip. Of course there is an absolute limit on the component density that can be attained; it is imposed by the atomic structure of the semiconductor material. A logic gate will never be devised that is smaller than an individual atom. Technology hasn t bumped up against that barrier yet.
In medium-scale integration (MSI), there are 10 to 100 gates per chip. This allows for considerable miniaturization, but it is not a high level of component density, relatively speaking. An advantage of MSI (in a few applications) is that fairly large currents can be carried by the individual gates. Both bipolar and MOS technologies can be adapted to MSI.
In large-scale integration (LSI), there are 100 to 1000 gates per semiconductor chip. This is an order of magnitude (a factor of 10) more dense than MSI.
530 Integrated circuits and data storage media Electronic wristwatches, single-chip calculators, and small microcomputers are examples of devices using LSI ICs. They can be 10 times more sophisticated than MSI devices.
VLSI
Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) devices have from 1,000 to 10,000 components per chip. This is an order of magnitude more dense than LSI. Complex microcomputers, and peripheral circuits such as memory storage ICs, are made using VLSI.
ULSI, ELSI, and OLSI
You might sometimes hear of ultra-large-scale integration (ULSI). Devices of this kind have more than 10,000 elements per chip. The principal use for this technology lies in ever-larger random-access memory (RAM) capability for personal computing. In the future, you can expect new names to arise to fit new technologies. But common sense will ultimately prevail over the ridiculous. While abbreviations like ELSI, for extremely large-scale integration, might be coined (this one happens to be an acronym, too), engineers have to be careful. What is extremely dense at one point in time might be ho-hum a few years later. No one wants to be cornered into christening a new invention with some laughable name like OLSI (overwhelmingly large-scale integration), just because all the other superlatives have been used up.
IC memory
Binary digital data, in the form of high and low levels (logic ones and zeros), can be stored in ICs. Data storage is generally known as memory. In ICs, memory can take various forms.
A random-access memory (RAM) stores binary data in arrays. The data can be addressed (selected) from anywhere in the matrix. Data is easily changed and stored back in RAM, in whole or in any part. A RAM is sometimes called a read/write memory. An example of RAM is a word-processing computer file that you are actively working on. This paragraph, this chapter, and in fact the whole text of this book was written in semiconductor RAM before being stored on disk (another kind of RAM) and ultimately printed on the paper now before you. There are two kinds of RAM: dynamic RAM (DRAM) and static RAM (SRAM). A DRAM employs IC transistors and capacitors, and data is stored as charges on the capacitors. The charge must be replenished frequently, or it will be lost via discharge. Replenishing is done automatically several hundred times per second. An SRAM uses a circuit called a flip-flop to store the data. This gets rid of the need for constant replenishing of charge, but the tradeoff is that SRAM ICs require more elements to store a given amount of data. With any RAM, the data is erased when the appliance is switched off, unless some provision is made for memory backup. The most common means of memory backup is the use of a cell or battery. Modern IC memories need so little current to store their data that a backup battery lasts as long in the circuit as it would on the shelf.
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