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WHEN YOU THINK OF ELECTRON TUBES, DO YOU IMAGINE THE OLD DAYS OF electronics Do you envision radios in racks taller than their operators, with strangely shaped, glowing, glass globes Have you heard that tubes are totally obsolete Well, some tubes are still around. The most common example is the cathode-ray tube in your TV set. The final amplifier in a TV broadcast transmitter is probably a tube, too.
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There are two kinds of tubes: vacuum tubes and gas-filled tubes. Vacuum tubes are by far more common. Vacuum tubes allow electrons to be accelerated to high speeds, resulting in a large current. This current can be made more or less intense, or focused into a beam and guided in a particular direction. The intensity and/or beam direction can be changed with extreme rapidity, making possible a variety of different useful effects. Gas-filled tubes have a constant voltage drop, no matter what the current. This makes them useful as voltage regulators for high-voltage, high-current power supplies. Gas-filled tubes can withstand conditions that would destroy semiconductor regulating devices. Gas-filled tubes also fluoresce, or emit infrared, visible light and/or ultraviolet at well-defined wavelengths. This property can be put to use for decorative lighting. Neon signs are gas-filled electron tubes. In any electron tube, the charge carriers are free electrons. This means that the electrons are not bound to atoms, but instead, fly through space in a barrage, somewhat like photons of visible light, or like the atomic nuclei in a particle accelerator.
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Before the start of the twentieth century, scientists knew that electrons could carry a current through a vacuum. They also knew that hot electrodes would emit electrons more easily than cool ones. These phenomena were put to use in the first electron tubes, known as diode tubes, for the purpose of rectification.
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Cathode, filament, plate
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In any tube, the electron-emitting electrode is called the cathode. The cathode is usually heated by means of a wire filament, similar to the glowing element in an incandescent bulb. The electron-collecting electrode is known as the anode or plate.
In some tubes, the filament also serves as the cathode. This is called a directly heated cathode. The negative supply voltage is applied directly to the filament. The filament voltage for most tubes is 6 V or 12 V. The schematic symbol for a diode tube with a directly heated cathode is shown at A in Fig. 29-1.
29-1 Schematic symbols for diode tubes; C = cathode, F = filament, P = plate. At A, directly heated cathode; at B, indirectly heated cathode; at C, cold cathode.
Indirectly heated cathode
In many tubes, the filament is enclosed within a cylindrical cathode, and the cathode gets hot from infrared radiation. This is known as an indirectly heated cathode. The cathode itself is grounded. The filament normally receives 6 V or 12 Vac. The schematic symbol for a diode tube with an indirectly heated cathode is shown at B in Fig. 29-1. In either the directly heated or indirectly heated cathode, electrons are driven off the element by the heat of the filament. The cathode of a tube is thus somewhat analogous to the source of a field-effect transistor, or to the emitter of a bipolar transistor. Because the electron emission in a tube depends on the filament or heater, tubes need a certain amount of time normally 30 seconds to a few minutes to warm up.
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Directly heated cathode
The triode 541 This waiting period can be an annoyance, and it seems bizarre at first to people who haven t dealt with tubes before.
Cold cathode
In a gas-filled voltage-regulator tube, the cathode might not have a filament to heat it. Such a device is called a cold-cathode tube. The schematic symbol for a cold-cathode tube is shown at C in Fig. 29-1. The solid dot indicates that the tube is gas filled, rather than completely evacuated. Various different chemical elements are used in gas-filled tubes; mercury vapor is probably most common. In this type of tube, the warmup period is the time needed for the elemental mercury to vaporize, usually a couple of minutes.
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