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Quadraphonic sound
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Quadraphonic sound refers to four-channel audio recording and reproduction. It is also called quad stereo or four-channel stereo. A conventional stereophonic circuit splits sound into two channels, the left channel and the right channel. In a quad stereo system, both of these channels are separated into front and rear components. In a true quadraphonic system, each of the four channels is independent of the other three. This is not the case in all so-called quadraphonic systems. Although true quad sound needs four tracks on a recording, some systems use two tracks and combine the left and right channels in phase quadrature (90 degrees out of phase) to obtain the front and rear signals. Figure 31-8 shows the ideal placement of the speakers with respect to the listener in a quadraphonic sound system. The speakers should be level with the listener, equidistant from the listener, and separated by angles of 90 degrees from the listener s point of view. If the listener is facing north, the left front speaker is to the northwest, the right front speaker is to the northeast, the left rear speaker is to the southwest, and the right rear speaker is to the southeast. This provides optimum balance, and also facilitates the greatest possible left-to-right and front-to-rear contrast in the perceived sounds. It is possible to add two more channels to quad sound, placing a fifth channel above the listener and a sixth channel below. These might be called zenith and nadir channels, respectively, and the system called hexaphonic sound. The main problem with this scheme is that the optimum placement of the listener is critical and rather bizarre. The ideal arrangement would require that the user sit or lie suspended in the exact spatial center of a perfectly cubical room. However, some audiophiles might put up with that to enjoy the effects.
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Audio music recordings are available in three traditional forms: vinyl disk, compact disk, and magnetic tape. A fourth scheme, digital audio computer files, is not discussed here; this technology falls into the category of personal computing.
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From input devices
31-8 Quad stereo provides true 360-degree directional reproduction using four speakers.
Vinyl disk
Vinyl disks require a turntable that spins at speeds of 33 and 45 revolutions per minute (rpm). There are various drive systems. These are called rim drive, belt drive, and direct drive. The best type is a matter of individual taste because there are various factors to consider, such as cost, audio quality, ruggedness, and durability. If you are planning to buy a turntable, it s a good idea to consult several hi-fi experts for advice. Although vinyl disks have been largely replaced by digital CDs, some audiophiles are still intrigued by vinyl. Some of these items have attained considerable value as collectors items. The main trouble with vinyl is that it can be physically damaged by even the slightest mishandling. Electrostatic effects can produce noise when the humidity is low, as in alpine or far northern regions in the winter. With music recorded on vinyl disks, it is fairly easy to change from one song to another. You can simply lift the stylus (needle) from the disk surface and place it at the beginning of the band representing the song you want to hear. The problem is that, if your hand slips or trembles, you might scratch the vinyl and cause permanent damage to the disk. Also, it takes a keen eye to position the needle exactly in the right place.
Compact disk
A CD is a plastic disk with diameter 4.72 in, on which data is permanently recorded in digital form. Any kind of data can be digitized: sound, images, and computer programs and files. In computer lingo, a CD containing files and/or software is called a CD-ROM (compact-disk read-only memory).
Recorded media 599 Digital sound, recorded on the surface of a compact disk, is practically devoid of the hiss and crackle that have historically bedeviled recordings on other media. This is because the information on the disk is binary: a bit (binary digit) is either 1 (high) or 0 (low). The distinction between these two states is more clear-cut than the subtle fluctuations of an analog signal. Noise is further reduced by a scattering/unscattering process that smears recordings throughout the disk. When a CD is manufactured, the sound is first subjected to analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion. This changes the continuously variable audio waves into logic bits. These bits are then burned into the surface of the disk in the form of microscopic pits. The pits are arranged in a long spiral track that measures several miles in length. When the sound is played back, the bits are unscattered. Digital signal processing (DSP) can eliminate some noise that has been introduced by environmental factors beyond people s control, such as microscopic particles on the disk or random electronic noise in circuit hardware. Then the data is subjected to digital-to-analog (D/A) conversion. Finally, the signal is amplified and sent to speakers or a headset. Compact-disk players recover the sound from a disk without physically touching the surface on which the data is recorded. A laser beam scans the disk. The beam is scattered by the pits and is reflected from the unpitted plastic. The result is a digitally modulated beam that is picked up by a sensor and converted into electrical currents. These currents then proceed to the unscattering (or descrambling), DSP, D/A, and audio amplification circuits. The speakers or headphones finally convert the audio currents into sound waves. With a CD player, the track location processes are electronic, and they can all be done quickly. Tracks are assigned numbers that you select by pressing buttons. It is impossible to damage the CD, no matter how much you skip around among the songs. You can fast-forward or rewind to different points within an individual track. You can program a CD player to play only those tracks you want, ignoring the others.
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