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Robotic navigation
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Mobile robots must get around in their environment without wasting motion, without running into things, and without tipping over or falling down a flight of stairs. The nature of a robotic navigation system depends on the size of the work area, the type of robot used, and the sorts of tasks the robot is required to perform. In this section, we ll look at a few of the more common methods of robotic navigation.
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Clinometer
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A clinometer is a device for measuring the steepness of a sloping surface. Mobile robots use clinometers to avoid inclines that might cause them to tip over or that are too steep for them to ascend while carrying a load. The floor in a building is almost always horizontal. Thus, its incline is zero. But sometimes there are inclines such as ramps. A good example is the kind of ramp used for wheelchairs, in which a very small elevation change occurs. A rolling robot can t climb stairs, but it might use a wheelchair ramp, provided the ramp isn t so steep that it would upset the robot s balance or cause it to lose its payload. In a clinometer, a transducer produces an electrical signal whenever the device is tipped from the horizontal. The greater the angle of incline, the greater the electrical output, as shown in the graph of Fig. 34-7A. A clinometer might also show whether an incline goes down or up. A downward slope might cause a negative voltage at the transducer output, and an upward slope a positive voltage, as shown in the graph at Fig. 34-7B.
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34-7 Two types of clinometer. At A, the output voltage is a simple function of slope. At B, upslope causes positive output voltage; downslope causes negative output voltage.
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658 Robotics and artificial intelligence
Edge detection
The term edge detection refers to the ability of a robotic vision system to locate boundaries. It also refers to the robot s knowledge of what to do with respect to those boundaries. A robot car, bus, or truck might use edge detection to see the edges of a road and use the data to keep itself on the road. But it would have to stay a certain distance from the right-hand edge of the pavement to avoid crossing into the lane of oncoming traffic (Fig. 34-8). It would have to stay off the road shoulder. It would have to tell the difference between pavement and other surfaces, such as gravel, grass, sand, and snow. The Sky
Grass Road shoulder Blacktop
Center line
Vision frame
34-8 In edge detection, a robot uses visual boundaries to facilitate navigation. This is what the controller might see in a robot car driving down the center line of a highway.
robot car could use beacons for this purpose, but this would require the installation of the guidance system beforehand. That would limit the robot car to roads that are equipped with such navigation aids. The interior of a home contains straight-line edge boundaries of all kinds, and each boundary represents a potential point of reference for a mobile robotic navigation system. The controller in a personal home robot would have to be programmed to know the difference between, say, the line where carpet ends and tile begins and the line where a flight of stairs begins. The vertical line produced by the intersection of two walls would present a different situation than the vertical line produced by the edge of a doorway.
Robotic navigation 659
Embedded path
An embedded path is a means of guiding a robot along a specific route. This scheme is commonly used by a mobile robot called an automated guided vehicle (AGV). A common embedded path consists of a buried, current-carrying wire. The current in the wire produces a magnetic field that the robot can follow. This method of guidance has been suggested as a way to keep a car on a highway, even if the driver isn t paying attention. The wire needs a constant supply of electricity for this guidance method to work. If this current is interrupted for any reason, the robot will lose its way unless some backup navigation method (or good old human control) is substituted. Alternatives to wires, such as colored or reflective paints or tapes, do not need a supply of power, and this gives them an advantage. Tape is easy to remove and put somewhere else; this is difficult to do with paint and practically impossible with wires embedded in concrete. However, tape will be obscured by even the lightest snowfall, and at night, glare from oncoming headlights might be confused for reflections from the tape.
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